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Nactlylvh: Language of the Night

Introduction

Nactlylvh, or “Night Speech”, is the native language of the Nacdrel, a race of immortal humanoids. It is also spoken by races influenced by Nacdrel culture.

Notation

Phonetic transcriptions appear within brackets (e.g., [ɱ]). These represent precise sounds where subtle variations matter.

Phonemic transcriptions appear within slashes (e.g., /ɱ/). These represent imprecise sounds where subtle variations don’t matter.

Orthographic transcriptions appear within chevrons (e.g., ⟨m⟩). These represent the written letters a language uses to represent a sound.

Phonetic and phonemic transcriptions use the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). If you aren’t familiar with the IPA, you can hear most of the pronunciations here:

Phonology

Consonants

Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal /ɱ̥ ɱ/ /n̥ n/
Stop /b̪/ /t d/ /k/
Fricative /f v/ /θ ð/ /s z/ /ʃ ʒ/ /x/
Approximant /χ ʁ/
Lateral Approximant /l̥ l/
Consonants
IPA Pronunciation
/ɱ̥/ Whispered English ⟨m⟩ with upper teeth against lower lip, as in ⟨symphony⟩
/ɱ/ English ⟨m⟩ with upper teeth against lower lip
/n̥/ Whispered English ⟨n⟩ as in ⟨lance⟩
/n/ English ⟨n⟩ as in ⟨night⟩
/b̪/ English ⟨b⟩ with upper teeth against lower lip as in ⟨obvious⟩
/t/ English ⟨t⟩ as in ⟨time⟩
/d/ English ⟨d⟩ as in ⟨dark⟩
/k/ English ⟨k⟩ as in ⟨kill⟩, never ⟨c⟩ as in ⟨cell⟩
/f/ English ⟨f⟩ as in ⟨fate⟩
/v/ English ⟨v⟩ as in ⟨vapor⟩
/θ/ English ⟨th⟩ as in ⟨thin⟩
/ð/ English ⟨th⟩ as in ⟨then⟩
/s/ English ⟨s⟩ as in ⟨sigh⟩
/z/ English ⟨z⟩ as in ⟨zero⟩
/ʃ/ English ⟨sh⟩ as in ⟨shy⟩
/ʒ/ English ⟨s⟩ as in ⟨vision⟩
/x/ Scottish ⟨ch⟩ as in ⟨loch⟩
/χ/ Guttural hiss, with optional growl or purr
/ʁ/ Guttural or French ⟨r⟩, with optional growl or purr
/l̥/ Whispered English ⟨l⟩ as in ⟨clean⟩
/l/ English ⟨l⟩ as in ⟨lake⟩, never as in ⟨cool⟩
Consonant Pronunciation Guide

Nactlylvh has a late voicing onset time.

[ɱ̥ ɱ] and [n̥ n] are complementary alophones of /ɱ/ and /n/, respectively. The voiceless phonemes in each of those pairs only occur adjacent to other voiceless consonants.

Although [χ ʁ] are technically fricatives according to the IPA, in Nactlylvh they may be formed as either fricatives or approximants. For the purposes of phonotactical constraints, they are always considered approximants.

Some speakers pronounce /l̥/ as a voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ].

Doubled nasals, fricatives, and approximants are prolonged.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close /i/ /ɯ/
Close-Mid /ɘ/
Open-Mid /ɛ/ /ʌ/
Open /ä/
Vowels
IPA Pronunciation
/i/ English ⟨ee⟩ as in ⟨free⟩
/ɯ/ English ⟨oo⟩ as in ⟨hook⟩
/ɘ/ English ⟨i⟩ as in ⟨bit⟩
/ɛ/ English ⟨e⟩ as in ⟨bed⟩
/ʌ/ English ⟨u⟩ as in ⟨gut⟩ or ⟨o⟩ as in ⟨not⟩, depending on your accent
/ä/ English ⟨a⟩ as in ⟨father⟩
Vowel Pronunciation Guide

Doubled vowels are prolonged.

Certain inflections call for vowels to be inverted. For front and back vowels, this means inverting the frontness (e.g., /i/ → /ɯ/, /ʌ/ → /ɛ/). For central vowels, you instead invert the height (e.g., /ɘ/ → /ä/).

Diphthongs

IPA Pronunciation
/i̯ɛ/ English ⟨ye⟩ as in ⟨yet⟩
/ɯ̯i/ French ⟨oui⟩
/ɯ̯ɘ/ English ⟨wi⟩ as in ⟨win⟩
/ɯ̯ɛ/ English ⟨we⟩ as in ⟨wet⟩
/ɯʌ̯/ English ⟨wo⟩ as in ⟨won’t⟩
/ɯ̯ä/ French ⟨oi⟩ as in ⟨noir⟩
/ɛi̯/ English ⟨ay⟩ as in ⟨day⟩
/äi̯/ English ⟨i⟩ as in ⟨spine⟩
Diphthong Pronunciation Guide

Phonotactics

Nactlylvh syllables adhere to the following rules:

  • Syllables follow the pattern (C)(C)V(C), that is:
    1. Up to two optional consonants
    2. A required vowel (which may be short, long, or a diphthong)
    3. An optional consonant
  • Onset consonant clusters adhere to the following order:
    1. Nasal or stop
    2. Fricative
    3. Approximant
  • Consonant pairings from the same level of the hierarchy are only allowed between fricatives, with the following additional restrictions:
    • Labiodental fricatives may not be the first phoneme in a fricative pairing
    • Dental fricatives may only be followed by labiodental or alveolar fricatives
    • Alveolar fricatives may only be followed by labiodental fricatives
    • Postalveolar and velar fricatives may not be paired with other fricatives
  • Adjacent consonants must agree in voicing
  • /x/ may only be paired with /k/ and approximants
  • Word-final nasals may form their own syllable following a stop or fricative

For ease of reference, here are the romanizations of all the possible Nactlylvh onsets:

⟨b⟩ ⟨bdh⟩ ⟨bl⟩ ⟨br⟩ ⟨bv⟩ ⟨bz⟩ ⟨bzh⟩
⟨c⟩ ⟨cch⟩ ⟨cl⟩ ⟨cr⟩ ⟨cs⟩ ⟨csh⟩ ⟨cth⟩ ⟨cv⟩
⟨ch⟩ ⟨chl⟩ ⟨chr⟩
⟨d⟩ ⟨ddh⟩ ⟨dl⟩ ⟨dr⟩ ⟨dv⟩ ⟨dz⟩ ⟨dzh⟩
⟨dh⟩ ⟨dhl⟩ ⟨dhr⟩ ⟨dhv⟩ ⟨dhz⟩
⟨h⟩
⟨l⟩
⟨lh⟩
⟨m⟩ ⟨mdh⟩ ⟨ml⟩ ⟨mr⟩ ⟨ms⟩ ⟨msh⟩ ⟨mth⟩ ⟨mv⟩ ⟨mvh⟩ ⟨mz⟩ ⟨mzh⟩
⟨n⟩ ⟨ndh⟩ ⟨nl⟩ ⟨nr⟩ ⟨ns⟩ ⟨nsh⟩ ⟨nth⟩ ⟨nv⟩ ⟨nvh⟩ ⟨nz⟩ ⟨nzh⟩
⟨r⟩
⟨s⟩ ⟨sl⟩ ⟨sr⟩ ⟨sv⟩
⟨sh⟩ ⟨shl⟩ ⟨shr⟩
⟨t⟩ ⟨tl⟩ ⟨tr⟩ ⟨ts⟩ ⟨tsh⟩ ⟨tth⟩ ⟨tv⟩
⟨th⟩ ⟨thl⟩ ⟨thr⟩ ⟨thv⟩ ⟨ths⟩
⟨v⟩ ⟨vl⟩ ⟨vr⟩
⟨vh⟩ ⟨vhl⟩ ⟨vhr⟩
⟨z⟩ ⟨zl⟩ ⟨zr⟩ ⟨zv⟩
⟨zh⟩ ⟨zhl⟩ ⟨zhr⟩

Onsets

Syllabification

Syllable breaks are placed according to the following rules:

  • Never divide word-initial consonant clusters: ⟨mvar⟩, ⟨dvus⟩
  • Divide medial and word-final clusters of two consonants:
    • Between nasals and any other consonant: ⟨um-vir⟩, ⟨haz-n⟩
    • Between stops and fricatives at different places of articulation: ⟨ab-zar⟩, ⟨u-bvir⟩
    • Between fricatives and approximants: ⟨os-ra⟩
    • Between any combination that is not a legal onset: ⟨ly-vhir-zun⟩
  • Divide after the first in a three-consonant cluster: ⟨nac-tra⟩, ⟨um-vri⟩, ⟨ab-vra⟩
  • Divide after vowels followed by single consonants: ⟨ze-bar⟩
  • Never divide diphthongs: ⟨nuar⟩, ⟨sel-ma-biet⟩
  • Never divide long vowels: ⟨tsy-liiz⟩
  • Divide between adjacent vowels: ⟨os-re-um⟩

Stress

Nactlylvh stress is regular and can be determined by following these steps:

  1. Stress the final syllable
  2. If the final syllable is a standalone nasal or ends in a vowel, move the stress to the penultimate syllable
  3. If the word contains a doubled consonant, move the stress to the vowel immediately preceding the last instance of such phonemes
  4. If the word contains a long vowel or diphthong, move the stress to the last instance of such phonemes

Sound Change

During affixation, certain phoneme patterns arise which are subject to sound changes.

Non-orthographic sound changes only affect pronunciation, not spelling:

  • The second in a doubled stop is fricativized
    • /b̪b̪/ → [b̪v] → ⟨bb⟩
    • /tt/ → [tθ] → ⟨tt⟩
    • /dd/ → [dð] → ⟨dd⟩
    • /kk/ → [kx] → ⟨cc⟩
  • Long vowels become two short vowels separated a non-syllabic /χ/
    • /äː/ → [äχä] → ⟨aa⟩
  • Word-final /ɛ/ becomes /ɘ/
    • /nɛ/ → [nɘ] → ⟨ne⟩

Orthographic sound changes affect both pronunciation and spelling. Because of this, they are simpler to explain using romanized examples.

  • In any pattern of C1C2V(V)(C3)C2, drop the first occurrence of C2
    • ⟨nactavtra⟩ → ⟨nacavtra⟩
    • ⟨rysnanai⟩ → ⟨rysanai⟩
    • ⟨umvavtri⟩ → ⟨umavtri⟩
  • In any pattern of VCVC, where each V and C are identical, if C is a stop, change its second occurrence to a fricative; if C is a fricative, change the second occurrence to a stop
    • ⟨zadhadhath⟩ → ⟨zadhadath⟩
    • ⟨beteta⟩ → ⟨betetha⟩
  • In any pattern of C⟨r⟩V(V)C⟨r⟩, C⟨lr⟩, C⟨mr⟩, or C⟨nr⟩, drop the final ⟨r⟩
    • crusri⟩ → ⟨crusi⟩
    • drelra⟩ → ⟨drela⟩
    • ⟨adhlra⟩ → ⟨adhla⟩
    • ⟨mazmra⟩ → ⟨mazma⟩
  • In any pattern of C⟨l⟩V(V)⟨r⟩, move the ⟨l⟩ to the end of the pattern and drop the ⟨r⟩
    • ⟨adhlar⟩ → ⟨adhal
    • ⟨ithluir⟩ → ⟨ithuil
  • If a medial consonant cluster cannot be divided in a way that produces two legal syllables, drop the second consonant
    • ⟨nactdrela⟩ → ⟨nacdrela⟩
    • ⟨umvnactra⟩ → ⟨umnactra⟩

Non-orthographic changes always precede orthographic changes.

Note that these changes only apply to patterns that appear across syllable boundaries as a result of morphological processes. Uninflected, non-compound words will never be subject to sound change.

Orthography

Romanization

IPA Romanization
/ä/ ⟨a⟩
/äː/ ⟨aa⟩
/ɛi̯/ ⟨ae⟩
/äi̯/ ⟨ai⟩
/b̪/ ⟨b⟩
/k/ ⟨c⟩
/x/ ⟨ch⟩
/d/ ⟨d⟩
/ð/ ⟨dh⟩
/ɛ/ ⟨e⟩
/ɛː/ ⟨ee⟩
/χ/ ⟨h⟩ by itself, ⟨r⟩ in clusters
/i/ ⟨i⟩
/i̯ɛ/ ⟨ie⟩
/iː/ ⟨ii⟩
/l/ ⟨l⟩
/l̥/ ⟨lh⟩ by itself, ⟨l⟩ in clusters
/ɱ̥/ ⟨m⟩
/ɱ/ ⟨m⟩
/n̥/ ⟨n⟩
/n/ ⟨n⟩
/ʌ/ ⟨o⟩
/ʌː/ ⟨oo⟩
/ʁ/ ⟨r⟩
/s/ ⟨s⟩
/ʃ/ ⟨sh⟩
/t/ ⟨t⟩
/θ/ ⟨th⟩
/ɯ/ ⟨u⟩
/ɯ̯ä/ ⟨ua⟩
/ɯ̯ɛ/ ⟨ue⟩
/ɯ̯i/ ⟨ui⟩
/ɯʌ̯/ ⟨uo⟩
/ɯː/ ⟨uu⟩
/ɯ̯ɘ/ ⟨uy⟩
/v/ ⟨v⟩
/f/ ⟨vh⟩ by itself or adjacent to a nasal or approximant, ⟨v⟩ otherwise
/ɘ/ ⟨e⟩ at the end of a word, ⟨y⟩ otherwise
/ɘː/ ⟨ye⟩ at the end of a word, ⟨yy⟩ otherwise
/z/ ⟨z⟩
/ʒ/ ⟨zh⟩
Romanization

Capitalization

The following are capitalized:

  • First word in a sentence
  • First word and every noun and verb in titles of creative works
  • Proper names and titles of people, places, ships, etc.
  • Times (ages, seasons, months, days)

Words derived from proper nouns are not capitalized unless they also fit into one of the above groups.

Punctuation

You can generally use English conventions for punctuation, although Nactlylvh tends to use fewer commas.

Alphabetical Order

Nactlylvh alphabetical order differs from English:

⟨m⟩
⟨vh⟩
⟨b⟩ ⟨v⟩
⟨n⟩
⟨t⟩ ⟨th⟩ ⟨s⟩ ⟨sh⟩
⟨d⟩ ⟨dh⟩ ⟨z⟩ ⟨zh⟩
⟨lh⟩ ⟨l⟩
⟨c⟩ ⟨ch⟩
⟨h⟩ ⟨r⟩
⟨i⟩ ⟨u⟩ ⟨y⟩ ⟨e⟩ ⟨o⟩ ⟨a⟩

Alphabetical Order

However, for simplicity’s sake, this guide will use the English order, and digraphs (e.g., ⟨lh⟩) will be treated as two separate characters.

Morphology

Roots

Most of Nactlylvh is based on noun roots. Some roots may appear to violate Nactlylvh phonotactics; however, uninflected roots never occur in natural language. At the very least, they always receive some kind of suffix. These affixes naturally correct any phonotactical irregularities.

Nouns

Nouns decline by case and number. They also have gender, but (with the exception of pronouns) this never affects the noun itself. Nouns can be modified with determiners and a variety of derivational inflections.

Gender

Nactlylvh has four grammatical genders:

  • Divine: living neuter entities, transcendance, balance, time, mathematical concepts
  • Alive: living male entities, life, light, heat, earth, positivity
  • Feminine: living female entities, water, air
  • Dead: dead things, death, spirits, darkness, cold, negativity

Grammatical gender is assigned on a semantic basis, but there are some exceptions and nuances. Exceptions can generally be explained by Nacdrel cultural values.

The most significant nuances regard the dead gender. Dead pronouns may sometimes be used to refer to a living entity. This has several possible meanings:

  • You are addressing a being’s spiritual aspect
  • You are expressing intimacy
  • You are expressing a threat

Number

Nactlylvh has five grammatical numbers:

  • Singular: one
  • Paucal: a couple, a few, some, several
  • Plural: several, many, lots of, most
  • Comprehensive: all, every, each
  • Null: zero, none, no

These numbers are relative to the topic at hand. The comprehensive can be used to refer to all the children in the world, or all the children in a single room, depending on context.

As can be seen above, there is a little bit of overlap between the paucal and the plural. Which you choose depends on whether you want to emphasize the smallness or largeness of the quantity. If the number seems to lie exactly between paucal and plural, then it doesn’t really matter which you choose.

The comprehensive may be used in either a general sense or an absolute sense. For instance, ⟨Nacdrelatha⟩ may refer to every single individual Nacdrel or simply Nacdrel in general. It can be similar to prepending ⟨each⟩, ⟨all⟩, or ⟨every⟩ to an English noun.

Explicit quantities (e.g., two, three, four, etc.) have innate grammatical number. The noun being counted must always take the grammatical number that matches the explicit number.

Decimal Number Octal Number Grammatical Number
0 0 Null
1 1 Singular
2 2 Paucal
3 3 Paucal
4 4 Paucal
5 5 Plural
6 6 Plural
7 7 Plural
8 10 Comprehensive
9 11 Paucal
10 12 Paucal
11 13 Paucal
12 14 Paucal
13 15 Plural
14 16 Plural
15 17 Plural
16 20 Comprehensive
Grammatical Number for Explicit Quantities

The pattern for octal numbers 11 through 20 (decimal 9 through 16) is repeated to infinity. Infinity, by the way, always takes the comprehensive. Negative numbers always take the null.

Case

Cases are formed via suffixation. The suffixes vary based on declension class and number.

A noun’s declension class is determined by the last vowel in the root. Vowels are sorted into high (close ⟨i u⟩, close-mid ⟨y⟩) and low (open-mid ⟨e o⟩, open ⟨a⟩) groups.

After applying these suffixes, remember to also apply any necessary sound changes.

Singular Paucal Plural Comprehensive Null
Vocative ⟨i⟩ ⟨u⟩ ⟨im⟩ ⟨ii⟩ ⟨ich⟩
Ergative ⟨ir⟩ ⟨ur⟩ ⟨irim⟩ ⟨iri⟩ ⟨irich⟩
Absolutive ⟨ith⟩ ⟨uth⟩ ⟨ithim⟩ ⟨ithi⟩ ⟨ithich⟩
Reflexive ⟨iiz⟩ ⟨uuz⟩ ⟨iizim⟩ ⟨iizi⟩ ⟨iizich⟩
Locative ⟨ri⟩ ⟨ru⟩ ⟨rim⟩ ⟨rii⟩ ⟨rich⟩
Lative ⟨avtri⟩ ⟨avtru⟩ ⟨avtrim⟩ ⟨avtiri⟩ ⟨avtrich⟩
Ablative ⟨ynai⟩ ⟨unai⟩ ⟨ynim⟩ ⟨yniri⟩ ⟨ynich⟩
High Declension Class
Singular Paucal Plural Comprehensive Null
Vocative ⟨a⟩ ⟨u⟩ ⟨am⟩ ⟨aa⟩ ⟨ach⟩
Ergative ⟨ar⟩ ⟨ur⟩ ⟨aram⟩ ⟨ara⟩ ⟨arach⟩
Absolutive ⟨ath⟩ ⟨uth⟩ ⟨atham⟩ ⟨atha⟩ ⟨athach⟩
Reflexive ⟨aaz⟩ ⟨uuz⟩ ⟨aazam⟩ ⟨aaza⟩ ⟨aazach⟩
Locative ⟨ra⟩ ⟨ru⟩ ⟨ram⟩ ⟨raa⟩ ⟨rach⟩
Lative ⟨avtra⟩ ⟨avtru⟩ ⟨avtram⟩ ⟨avtara⟩ ⟨avtrach⟩
Ablative ⟨anai⟩ ⟨unai⟩ ⟨anam⟩ ⟨anara⟩ ⟨anach⟩
Low Declension Class

Cases are organized into groups:

  • Vocative: exclamations, direct addresses, anything that doesn’t fit the other cases
  • Morphosyntactic Alignment
    • Ergative: subjects of transitive sentences and some intransitive sentences
    • Absolutive: objects of transitive sentences, subjects of some intransitive sentences
    • Reflexive: Subjects and objects of reflexive and reciprocal sentences
  • Prepositional
    • Locative: static position in space or time, passive and stable relationships, means
    • Lative: spatial or temporal movement toward something, active positive relationships
    • Ablative: spatial or temporal movement away from something, active negative relationships

The vocative case is the citation form for nouns, except for personal names. Personal names in the vocative case are simply unmarked.

The morphosyntactic alignment cases convey basic sentence structure. You can reference the following table to determine which case to use based on the sentence type and the role of the noun in question (blank cells do not occur in Nactlylvh):

Subject Object
Transitive Ergative Absolutive
Instransitive Absolutive
Reflexive Reflexive
Reciprocal Reflexive
Morphosyntactic Alignment Cases

The prepositional cases must be preceded by a preposition, of which there are three:

  • ⟨lu⟩: position or movement in space
  • ⟨dhu⟩: position or movement in time
  • ⟨vu⟩: abstract relationships

The following table maps the various preposition-case combinations to English prepositions:

Locative Lative Ablative
Spatial in, at, on, by, with, through, via to, toward, at, into, onto away, from, out, off
Temporal at, during until, before since, after
Relational of, like, as for against
Prepositional Cases

Prepositions must be contracted to their object if any of the following are true:

  • The object begins with a vowel
  • The preposition’s onset and the object’s onset together form a legal onset cluster

Contraction is performed by dropping the preposition’s vowels and concatenating the words via an apostrophe.

Determiners

Determiners are hyphenated to the end of the noun they modify.

Nactlylvh has three types of determiners:

  • Articles
  • Quantifiers
  • Possessives

Nactlylvh has definite articles, but not indefinite. Articles inflect based on the root noun’s declension class. Note that the plural article is used for all grammatical numbers greater than one, and the singular articles are used for the null number.

High Singular Low Singular Plural
⟨zi⟩ ⟨za⟩ ⟨zu⟩
Definite Articles

The definite article also takes the place of the English demonstratives ⟨this⟩ and ⟨that⟩—but not when they’re used as pronouns!

Nactlylvh is not as liberal with its articles as English. Proper nouns almost never take an article; where English would say “the Atlantic Ocean”, Nactlylvh says “Atlantic Ocean”. There’s only one, so the article is redundant. It’s similar to how an English speaker would never say “I went to the New York to visit the David.”

Numbers may be used as quantifiers, and do not inflect when used as such. Naturally, “zero” may only be attached to null nouns, “one” to singular nouns, and all other counters to paucal, plural, or comprehensive nouns. The quantifiers zero through eight are given below; for more, see numbers.

Decimal Digit Nactlylvh Name
0 ⟨eb⟩
1 ⟨zut⟩
2 ⟨dul⟩
3 ⟨syth⟩
4 ⟨chat⟩
5 ⟨ez⟩
6 ⟨as⟩
7 ⟨en⟩
8 ⟨lhur⟩
Quantifiers

Possessive determiners are equivalent to the English possessive pronouns ⟨my⟩, ⟨your⟩, ⟨its⟩, etc. Unlike articles, they inflect based on the gender and number of their referent rather than the declension class and number of their head noun. Note that, in the tables below, the plural forms are used for all grammatical numbers greater than one.

Gender Singular Plural
Divine ⟨zhe⟩ ⟨zhym⟩
Alive ⟨zha⟩ ⟨zham⟩
Feminine ⟨zhi⟩ ⟨zhim⟩
Dead ⟨zhu⟩ ⟨zhum⟩
First-Person Possessives
Gender Singular Plural
Divine ⟨the⟩ ⟨thym⟩
Alive ⟨tha⟩ ⟨tham⟩
Feminine ⟨thi⟩ ⟨thim⟩
Dead ⟨thu⟩ ⟨thum⟩
Second-Person Possessives
Gender Singular Plural
Divine ⟨ne⟩ ⟨nym⟩
Alive ⟨na⟩ ⟨nam⟩
Feminine ⟨ni⟩ ⟨nim⟩
Dead ⟨nu⟩ ⟨num⟩
Third-Person Possessives

Certain determiners may be compounded with certain others. The following combinations are allowed:

  • Quantifier-article
  • Quantifier-possessive

Components must always appear in the orders given above.

Derivations

Noun roots can be modified by a number of derivational inflections to create new or more nuanced concepts.

Derivation Prefix Infix Suffix Example
Augmentative ⟨adh⟩ sword → greatsword
Diminutive ⟨us⟩ sword → dagger
Positive ⟨a⟩ to pose → to stand
Negative ⟨u⟩ to pose → to lie
Moderative ⟨y⟩ to pose → to sit
Invertive invert the root vowel death → undeath
Associated Agent ⟨ul⟩ sword → swordsman
Associated Place ⟨nen⟩ sword → scabbard
Associated Thing or Instance ⟨et⟩ child → toy
Derivational Inflections

The augmentative and diminutive derivations can be loosely translated as “big X” and “little X”.

The positive and negative derivations are similar to the augmentative/diminutive, and there is no hard and fast rule about when to use which pair. Often, the positive-negative axis is used for subtle variations on a concept rather than a completely new concept.

The moderative derivation lies in the middle of the positive-negative axis, and emphasizes averageness or compromise.

At first glance, the invertive seems to create antonyms, but it’s actually more nuanced than that. Death and life are opposites, but undeath is something else entirely. Most true antonyms have their own unique root in the lexicon.

Verbs and adjectives are also derived from nouns, but these are covered in their own chapters.

Verbs

Verbs are derived from nouns by applying a verbal suffix to the root. Verbs inherit their root noun’s class, and conjugate based on tense and mood.

Infinitive Perfect Imperfect Future Imperfect Future Perfect
Indicative ⟨in⟩ ⟨uziin⟩ ⟨uzin⟩ ⟨uvin⟩ ⟨uviin⟩
Desiderative ⟨uziien⟩ ⟨uzien⟩ ⟨uvien⟩ ⟨uviien⟩
Timitive ⟨uzuiin⟩ ⟨uzuin⟩ ⟨uvuin⟩ ⟨uvuiin⟩
High Conjugation Class
Infinitive Perfect Imperfect Future Imperfect Future Perfect
Indicative ⟨an⟩ ⟨yzaan⟩ ⟨yzan⟩ ⟨yvan⟩ ⟨yvaan⟩
Desiderative ⟨yzaaen⟩ ⟨yzaen⟩ ⟨yvaen⟩ ⟨yvaaen⟩
Timitive ⟨yzuaan⟩ ⟨yzuan⟩ ⟨yvuan⟩ ⟨yvuaan⟩
Low Conjugation Class

Tense

Nactlylvh has four tenses:

  • Perfect: Actions completed in the past or present
  • Imperfect: Incomplete or ongoing actions in the past or present
  • Future Imperfect: Incomplete or ongoing actions in the future
  • Future Perfect: Actions completed in the future

Mood

Nactlylvh has five verbal moods:

  • Indicative: Simple statements of fact
  • Desiderative: Desired outcomes, commands
  • Timitive: Feared outcomes, negative commands
  • Interrogative: Questions, uncertainty
  • Negative: Negate the verb, invert the other moods

The indicative, desiderative, and timitive moods are built into the verbal suffix, and are mutually exclusive.

The interrogative mood is formed by preceding the verb with the particle ⟨cu⟩.

The negative mood may be combined with any of the others. It is formed by adding an additional suffix ⟨ach⟩.

Nactlylvh does not have as many modal verbs as English. It instead uses combinations of tense and mood to communicate the desired meaning.

For instance, instead of saying “I can read,” you simply say “I read,” using the imperfect indicative form of to read.

The English modal verbs ⟨should⟩ and ⟨must⟩ are usually represented by the desiderative or timitive moods, depending on the speaker’s feelings.

Gerunds

Infinitives may function as gerunds. When used as such, they may refer either to general action or specific instances of an action. Gerunds decline by case as if they were regular nouns.

Descriptives

Descriptives are derived from nouns by applying a suffix based on the root noun’s declension class. They decline by case similarly to nouns.

  • Stative: the head is in a state (e.g., dead)
  • Causative: the head causes a state (e.g., deadly)

The only difference between adjectives and adverbs is that adjectives agree in number with the noun they describe, while adverbs agree in number with the subject of the verb they modify.

Singular Paucal Plural Comprehensive Null
Stative ⟨ishi⟩ ⟨ishu⟩ ⟨ishim⟩ ⟨ishiri⟩ ⟨ishich⟩
Causative ⟨uir⟩ ⟨uur⟩ ⟨uirim⟩ ⟨uiri⟩ ⟨uirich⟩
High Declension Class for Descriptives
Singular Paucal Plural Comprehensive Null
Stative ⟨azha⟩ ⟨azhu⟩ ⟨azham⟩ ⟨azhara⟩ ⟨azhach⟩
Causative ⟨uar⟩ ⟨uur⟩ ⟨uaram⟩ ⟨uara⟩ ⟨uarach⟩
Low Declension Class for Descriptives

Numbers

Nactlylvh uses an octal number system. There is debate as to whether this is because Nacdrel have four fingers on each hand, or because Nacdrel revere the moon with its eight cardinal phases.

Decimal Digit Octal Digit Name
0 0 ⟨eb⟩
1 1 ⟨zut⟩
2 2 ⟨dul⟩
3 3 ⟨syth⟩
4 4 ⟨chat⟩
5 5 ⟨ez⟩
6 6 ⟨as⟩
7 7 ⟨en⟩
8 10 ⟨lhur⟩
Numbers

Numbers larger than ⟨lhur⟩ are formed via concatenation.

Decimal Digit Octal Digit Name
9 11 ⟨lhurzut⟩
10 12 ⟨lhurdul⟩
11 13 ⟨lhursyth⟩
12 14 ⟨lhurchat⟩
13 15 ⟨lhurez⟩
14 16 ⟨lhuras⟩
15 17 ⟨lhuren⟩
16 20 ⟨dullur⟩
17 21 ⟨dullurzut⟩
18 22 ⟨dullurdul⟩
19 23 ⟨dullursyth⟩
20 24 ⟨dullurchat⟩
21 25 ⟨dullurez⟩
22 26 ⟨dulluras⟩
23 27 ⟨dulluren⟩
24 30 ⟨sythlur⟩
32 40 ⟨chatlur⟩
Larger Numbers

This method allows numbers up to decimal 63 (⟨enlhuren⟩, octal 77). Decimal 64 (octal 100) is formed by compounding ⟨arc⟩ (perfection) and ⟨lhur⟩, resulting in ⟨arclur⟩.

Negative Numbers

Negative numbers are formed by inverting the root vowel.

Decimal Digit Octal Digit Name
-1 -1 ⟨zit⟩
-2 -2 ⟨dil⟩
-3 -3 ⟨sath⟩
-4 -4 ⟨chyt⟩
-5 -5 ⟨oz⟩
-6 -6 ⟨ys⟩
-7 -7 ⟨on⟩
-8 -10 ⟨lhir⟩
Negative Numbers

Fractions

Fractions are formed by suffixing ⟨ash⟩.

English Nactlylvh
half ⟨dulash⟩
third ⟨sythash⟩
fourth ⟨chatash⟩
fifth ⟨ezash⟩
sixth ⟨asash⟩
seventh ⟨enash⟩
eighth ⟨lhurash⟩
Fractions

Nactlylvh fractions are never used as ordinals like they are in English.

Ordinals

Fractions are formed by suffixing ⟨ai⟩.

English Nactlylvh
first ⟨zutai⟩
second ⟨dulai⟩
third ⟨sythai⟩
fourth ⟨chatai⟩
fifth ⟨ezai⟩
sixth ⟨asai⟩
seventh ⟨enai⟩
eighth ⟨lhurai⟩
last ⟨zetai⟩
Ordinals

Note that the ordinal “last” is derived not from a number, but from ⟨zet⟩ (death).

Ordinal forms are never used for fractions like they are in English.

Numbers as Nouns

When used as nouns, numbers decline by case.

When speaking of the number itself (e.g., “four is a multiple of two”), the number almost always takes singular inflections. However, it may take plural inflections in rare situations, such as referring to all of the threes in a deck of cards.

When used as pronouns, all numbers except “zero” and “one” must take plural inflections. Additionally, the number takes on the gender of its referent.

Numbers as Quantifiers

When used to count things, as in “five swords,” the number is treated as a determiner.

Syntax

Word Order

Sentence Order

Nactlylvh’s case system supports free word order. However, in the absence of any semantic or stylistic preference, the usual default order is subject-object-verb (SOV).

Phrase Order

Nactlylvh is a head-first language. More precisely:

  1. Noun or verb
  2. Determiners
  3. Modifiers (adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, and subordinate clauses)

Phrase order is not quite as flexible as sentence order, but there is still some freedom. The key thing to remember is that the more modifiers you add to the end of a phrase, the more care you must take in ordering them. Adding too many modifiers can make your intended meaning impossible to discern.

Emphasis through Order

Free word order allows a great deal of nuance. In Nactlylvh, emphasis is placed on the first and last things mentioned, with the last receiving the most attention.

Note that emphasis is not the only reason to choose a particular arrangement. Personal style is also a factor. Free word order is often used to poetic effect, either to draw attention to a deeper meaning or simply because the speaker likes the sound of a particular arrangement.

Some sentence constructions impose optional guidelines on word order to aid in quick understanding. Questions, for instance, are marked on the verb, so interrogative verbs are often moved to the front to signal the question as early as possible.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions may connect individual words, phrases, or independent clauses. Unless stated otherwise, the order of the connected arguments doesn’t matter.

Conjunction English Equivalent Meaning
⟨yl⟩ and Arguments on either side are treated as a single unit
⟨das⟩ but not, except Arguments on the right are excluded
⟨set⟩ and then Creates chronological sequences from left to right
⟨yr⟩ and-or One or more of the linked arguments may be true at the same time
⟨ec⟩ either-or Only one of the linked arguments may be true
⟨ub⟩ if-then If the argument on one side is true, the other is also true
⟨du⟩ however If the argument on one side is true, the other is false
⟨uvn⟩ therefore The first argument causes the second
⟨nvu⟩ because The second argument causes the first
⟨zhra⟩ also Emphasizes similarity between arguments; the argument being compared against may be omitted
Conjunctions

Deletions

Generally, redundant components of a sentence can be removed. This goes for verbs, objects, and subjects.

Imperative sentences can omit the subject if the subject is present and being addressed directly, as in English. If the command is not being given directly (i.e., third-person subjects), the subject is required.

In cases where English requires a dummy subject such as ⟨it⟩, Nactlylvh can simply omit the subject entirely.

Subordination

Nactlylvh’s subordination process isn’t very formal; sentences are merely concatenated via commas. For example:

  • “The man who caught the fish is here.” → “The man, he caught the fish, is here.”
  • “The fish that the man caught is tasty.” → “The fish, the man caught it, is tasty.”
  • “I hate the man who caught the fish.” → “I hate the man, he caught the fish.”
  • “I ate the fish that the man caught.” → “I ate the fish, the man caught it.”

Generally, native speakers prefer to break subordinate clauses out into several simple sentences:

  • “The man who caught the fish is here.” → “A man caught the fish. He is here.”
  • “The fish that the man caught is tasty.” → “The man caught a fish. It is tasty.”
  • “I hate the man who caught the fish.” → “A man caught the fish. I hate him.”
  • “I ate the fish that the man caught.” → “The man caught a fish. I ate it.”

Even better, the listener understands the topic enough that subordinate clauses can be left out entirely:

  • “The man who caught the fish is here.” → “The man is here.”
  • “The fish that the man caught is tasty.” → “The fish is tasty.”
  • “I hate the man who caught the fish.” → “I hate the man.”
  • “I ate the fish that the man caught.” → “I ate the fish.”

Nacdrel are especially fond of this last tactic, often omitting information that others might consider essential to comprehension. It works well enough amongst their own kind, but other races can find conversation with a Nacdrel mildly infuriating.

Questions

At their simplest, questions may be formed through intonation alone. This, however, relies heavily on context and understanding between speakers.

Questions may be marked more clearly by using the interrogative verbal mood. The verb is often moved to the front of the sentence to signal the question as early as possible, but this is not required.

Query pronouns may be used to ask more open questions that prompt answers beyond yes or no.

When the nouns ⟨sav⟩ and ⟨haz⟩ are used to answer a yes/no question, they don’t decline by case. They may take one of the vocative plural endings, however, to answer multiple questions at once.

Comparisons

The standard construction for comparative sentences, where x’s quality is being compared against y’s, looks like this:

x compares lu quality vu y

X always takes the absolutive case. Quality takes the locative case if x’s is equal to or greater than y’s, or the ablative case otherwise. Y takes the ablative case unless both are equal, in which case it takes the locative case.

The order of the elements can be changed of course, although care should be taken to avoid confusion.

Comparative sentences don’t necessarily need to include a y to compare against, assuming the y is known or unimportant.

Causatives

Causative sentences may be formed in two ways. The first, and most common, is to treat the “causing” verb as normal, and to treat the “caused” verb as a gerund in the absolutive case. The subject of the “caused” verb then takes the relational locative case. A literal translation of “I caused him to go” would read something like “I caused to go of him.”

The second method is to link two independent clauses with the conjunctions ⟨uvn⟩ or ⟨nvu⟩. A literal translation of this method would read something like “I caused, therefore he went.”

Semantics

Life, Death, & Time

The most significant abstract concept in Nacdrel culture is the metaphysical trinity of life, death, and time. These elements are what bind a being’s mortal existence.

The Nacdrel concept of life is related to vitality, but not the act of living. Rather, life represents beginnings and positive change.

Death is the polar opposite of life. It represents endings and negative change. However, death is not necessarily associated with evil; Nacdrel consider it to be a natural, neutral part of existence. In fact, they generally hold the concept of death in higher esteem than that of life; they worship a goddess of death.

If life and death are opposed to each other, then time is the judge that stands between them. A being is born of life, and leaves the mortal plane via death; time is what measures the space in between. As mentioned, the concept of life does not encompass the act of carrying out one’s existence (i.e., the act of living); that is instead given to the realm of time. Therefore, instead of saying “I live here,” a Nacdrel would say “I wait here.”

Time

Flow

In Nacdrel culture, time flows downward from life to death. Therefore, rather than moving backward or forward in time, you move up or down. Up is the past, and down is the future.

Lunar Divisions

It should come as no surprise that “Night-Children” who communicate in “Night-Speech” use a lunar calendar. The moon is an important religious symbol to the Nacdrel. It represents, among other things, the eye of Zetres, their goddess. Therefore, the major divisions of time revolve around the metaphor of an eye or face.

Division Nactlylvh English
day ⟨nacta⟩ night
month ⟨lhasa⟩ blink
year ⟨nodha⟩ nod
Lunar Divisions of Time

Note that ⟨nacta⟩ represents both a calendar day and nighttime, similar to how English ⟨day⟩ can mean both a calendar day and daytime.

A Nacdrel calendar day starts at moonrise. A Nacdrel month is the time it takes for the moon to pass through all its phases, with a new month beginning at each new moon. The exact duration of these time units varies from world to world.

Nacdrel do not acknowledge a “week” unit. However, other cultures have adapted the Nacdrel calendar and added the concept of weeks. In these societies, a week begins at the start of each lunar phase. So the week of the new moon starts on the first of the month, and the last week of the month starts at the waning half moon. Some cultures use only the new, full, and half moons, resulting in four weeks per month. Other cultures also incorporate the intermediate phases (crescents and gibbouses) for a total of eight weeks per month. Because Nacdrel don’t observe weeks, there is no native term in Nactlylvh.

Seasons

In English, we’re accustomed to seasons being described by a metaphor of life and death (e.g., summer = life, winter = death). This metaphor is used by the Nacdrel as well, except they tie it to the power of their goddess of death.

Season Nactlylvh English
Spring ⟨Vena-Nu⟩ Her Waning
Summer ⟨Nadra-Nu⟩ Her Nadir
Autumn ⟨Vecsa-Nu⟩ Her Waxing
Winter ⟨Zythi-Nu⟩ Her Zenith
Seasons

Kinship

Nactlylvh has an odd kinship system, arising from a mixture of Nacdrel biology and religion. Nacdrel view their deities as the ultimate parents of every created being. Therefore, they consider all people to be siblings, and this is reflected in most kinship terms.

English Nactlylvh Literal Translation
parent ⟨azdrela⟩ life-sibling
father ⟨azdhava⟩ life-brother
mother ⟨azzhuli⟩ life-sister
child ⟨drelusi⟩ little-sibling
son ⟨dhavusi⟩ little-brother
daughter ⟨zhulusi⟩ little-sister
sibling ⟨drela⟩ sibling
brother ⟨dhava⟩ brother
sister ⟨zhuli⟩ sister
spouse ⟨ylddrela⟩ bond-sibling
husband ⟨ylddhava⟩ bond-brother
wife ⟨yldzhuli⟩ bond-sister
Kinship Terms

There is another, more direct translation for ⟨parent⟩, but it is used exclusively of deities.

Colors

English has six “main” colors into which we sort an infinite number of hues: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple. Nactlylvh sorts colors similarly, and has direct translations for our main English colors. However, the specifics of how colors are sorted are slightly different.

We generally think of cyan as the dividing line between green and blue, but a Nacdrel would draw that line closer to green. While we usually sort teal, aquamarine, and turquoise in the “green” bucket, a Nacdrel instead lumps them together under “blue”.

This shift is fairly consistent around the color wheel. Basically, you can think of the Nacdrel color wheel as being rotated several degrees negatively to our own.

Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple
English
Nactlylvh
Colors

Personal Names

Nacdrel names are often, though not always, derived from noun roots by applying a gender-based suffix.

  • Male: ⟨ar⟩, ⟨im⟩
  • Female: ⟨iel⟩, ⟨res⟩

Alternatively, a root may be appropriated unmodified for use as a name.

It is not uncommon for a name to be completely unique. A common word may be modified to suit the namer’s taste, or the name may be invented without any etymology at all. The only guideline for invented names is that it must conform to the language’s phonological rules.

A Nacdrel is typically named twice during its life, once at birth (birth name) and again to mark a defining accomplishment (accolade). Birth names may be arbitrary, or they may carry special significance. Accolades always signify the accomplishment for which they are given.

If a Nacdrel’s birth name and accolade are used together, the birth name comes first, followed immediately by the accolade.

Most of the time, personal names decline by case like regular nouns. However, names in the vocative case never receive the vocative suffix; they simply appear unmarked.

Military Ranks

Nacdrel military forces are organized according to the metaphor of a torso. The smallest division is called a finger, and from there the ranks ascend through the hand, the arm, and the chest.

Nacdrel units are small, necessitated in part by their low populations. However, Nacdrel are exceptionally skilled and can augment their abilities with magic. A small Nacdrel force can be just as formidable as another army several times its size. Human units, on the other hand, are much larger and form the bulk of an army.

Division English Nacdrel Soldiers Human Soldiers
⟨mocta⟩ finger 8 32
⟨chata⟩ hand 16–32 64–128
⟨duri⟩ arm 32–64 256–512
⟨delva⟩ chest 64–128 1024–2048
⟨cuthi⟩ army 128+ 4096+
Military Ranks

Pragmatics

Pragmatic Markers

English contains a wide array of utterances that help to guide the flow of conversation, for example: ⟨uh⟩, ⟨oh⟩, ⟨well⟩, ⟨OK⟩, ⟨right?⟩, ⟨hm⟩, etc.

These are almost entirely absent among Nacdrel. Nacdrel speech is characteristically uncluttered, and aided by a deep racial understanding even between strangers.

Other races, however, have adopted several markers:

Marker English Equivalents Meaning
⟨y⟩ uh, um, hm expresses uncertainty, signals a moment of thought
⟨sa⟩ right, alright, yeah, OK expresses agreement or pleasure
⟨cha⟩ ugh, yeah right, puh, uh-uh, yuck, ew expresses disagreement or distaste
⟨o⟩ and you?, well?, right?, yeah? prompts a response
⟨ue⟩ ah, oh, uh-huh expresses acknowledgement, prompts continuation
⟨mvu⟩ so yeah, there it is signals completion, surrenders control of conversation
⟨reu⟩ so, now, by the way changes the subject, introduces a long turn
Pragmatic Markers

Politeness

To a Nacdrel, politeness is tied closely with honesty. Amusingly, this often makes them appear rude in other cultures where flattery is preferred to bluntness.

There is also a tendency toward reticence; as a rule, Nacdrel will say no more than what must be said. This is related to politeness (not wanting to waste the listener’s time), but it also touches on several other facets of Nacdrel culture, such as their racial melancholia and deep understanding of each other.

Tone of voice plays a large role in Nacdrel manners. Nactlylvh voicing and stress are subtle. Loud, strongly emphasized speech is a sign of disrespect. This is relative; the threshold between politeness and rudeness is lowest amongst Nacdrel, who are naturally soft-spoken, and higher amongst other races.

Nactlylvh has no equivalent to the English ⟨please⟩ and ⟨thank you⟩. The closest you can get to making a polite request is to speak in a slightly higher, softer voice with a rising intonation. Grattitude is typically expressed through actions and demeanor rather than words.

Registers

Nactlylvh has several registers organized by degree of formality.

The familiar register is used between friends. It is standard Nactlylvh, but with a lot of room for sloppy grammar. Most notably, this is the only level where given names are regularly used.

The formal register is used when speaking to one whose authority, power, or honor are lower than or equal to your own, but with whom you are not closely acquainted. It is very similar to the familiar level, except proper grammar is more closely observed, and accolades are preferred over given names.

The honorific register is used when speaking to someone above you in authority, power, or honor. Proper grammar is strictly observed, and given names are never used. In this level, the default SOV sentence order is more common, only being altered for particular emphasis.

Note that the registers are chosen based on the speaker’s relationship to the listener. In a conversation between a peasant and a king, the peasant would speak in the honorific register, while the king would use the formal register. When speaking to a group of mixed or unknown status, use the highest appropriate register.

The familiar register can sometimes override the honorific register. If the king and peasant were good friends, either of them might use the familiar register, although manners would dictate that the king initiate its use.

Finally, the divine register is used exclusively for religious contexts, especially public prayers. It is identical to the honorific register, except no reference to the listener (i.e., the deity) is ever spoken, be it a name, title, or pronoun.

Samples

Leta vu Drela

The “Child’s Welcome” was first spoken by Queen Naactres to Vreith Nightstorm. It has since become a tradition to recite this passage to all newborn Nacdrel.

Note in the last line how free word order is used to create a poetic symmetry, emphasizing and linking the verbs ⟨mourn⟩ and ⟨heal⟩.

Nymith methyzaen drelar: thanath zutuziinich.
Know this; child: you are not alone.
Uvadhar thanath nothyzan; numir nothyzan zhamatha nvu zhamatha azyzaan lu Azzhulynai-zham, Numir uvadhyzan vu zetanai.
Grief consumes you; it consumes us all; for were were born of our Mother; who grieves without end.
Uvadhyzan zhamara v’yldri yl v’yldri zhamara avnyzan.
We mourn together; and together we heal.

Hecha vu Nezachimri

Tradition asserts that when the slain god Nezachim had recovered enough power to once again influence the world, certain individuals of a particularly sensative nature “heard” a terrible voice. Their reports coalesced into the “Curse of Nezachim”, the words spoken by the evil prince as he began his war against all living things.

Note the use of the time-neuter pronouns when Nezachim addresses both Father and Mother together. This is because Nezachim’s father, being a god of life, belongs to the alive gender, while his mother, the Nacdrel goddess of death, belongs to the dead gender. Since the audience is a group of mixed gender, you takes the vague divine gender.

Lu curulavtri-zi vu mazma-zha mutuviien zvirdryvtithi-zu vu Zvirieli, luvazatha-zu vu Luvieli lu azulavtri-zi vu chazra-zha.
Make Zfiriel’s currents the bearer of my plague; Luviel’s springs the source of my venom.
Chashara-zu vu Verushimri nothyvaan vrytithi-nam set Raicalimir racyvaan osatha-nam.
Verushim’s flames shall devour their flesh; and Raicalim shall bury their bones.
Blurithi-nam dlynuvien Azdhavar vu darthanai!
Hear their cries; loveless Father!
Azzhulir vu nzychri oclyvaen, thunir nymith cetyzaan vu namanara!
Treacherous Mother; see to what thou hast subjected them!
Thanur dhavusith-tham zutai nlysuziin uvn numir revath-za vu drelusithi-thym chyvuviin lu shynavtri vu zetanai.
Thou casteth down thy firstborn; now he shall drag the rest of thy children into eternal anguish.
Vyscithi-nam drelyvaan drelusirim-zhu, curnithi-nam hedhyvaan drelusiri-zhu.
Their entrails shall be the playthings of my children; their skin my offspring’s cloaks.
Set zulhi-nam…zulhithi-nam zhumir rezyvaan, drethzulhithim-zu umvishi, numiri vescyvaan vu thynru dhu zetanai vu drelraa.
And their souls…their souls shall be my trophies; the blackened ghosts that come for thee when everyone else is dead.

Sample Sentences

Zhamar methyvaan vu thanavtra lylvhith-zi vu Nacdrelram-zu: Nactlylvhi.
I will teach you the language of the Nacdrel: Nactlylvh.
Zhamar nactlylvhuzin.
I speak Nactlylvh.
Nimir vhlurith-zi tazyzaan lu vhlosavtra-ni set nuzudiin.
She raised the flower to her nose and smiled.
Nimir selmyzaan lu namavtra zadhath.
She gave him a sword.
Dhavaaz-ni myrcuziin dhu zletra-za.
My brother hid during the battle.
Zhamar thynith notyzan.
I love you.
Umvir-zi cshuruzin vestath-tha, lhurlir-zi zulhith-tha.
The darkness forms your body; the moonlight your spirit.
Csharath-za, namath dhavar-za mrondyzaan, zhamar nothyzaan.
I ate the fish that the man caught.
Zhamur letyzaan drelath vu nactra.
We met a child of the night.

Lexicon

This lexicon is organized alphabetically according to English conventions. Nouns are given in the vocative case, and verbs are given in the infinitive.

alhetha
noun, alive
upright, erect, or standing posture
alhethan
verb
to stand
alhethazha
adjective
upright; standing; erect
as
number, divine
six
avna
noun, alive
rest; healing; recuperation
avnan
verb
to rest; to heal; to recuperate
avnazha
adjective
rested; healed; recuperated
avnnena
noun, alive
hospital
avnuar
adjective
restful; healing; recuperative
avnuli
noun, alive
doctor; healer
aza
noun, alive
life; birth; beginning; wakefulness; consciousness
azan
verb
to be alive; to give life; to give birth; to be born; to begin; to become conscious for the first time
azazha
adjective
alive; vivacious; awake; conscious
azdhava
noun, alive
father
azdrela
noun, alive
parent
azdrelan
verb
to parent; to birth or raise a child
aznena
noun, alive
womb
Azrim
noun, alive
god of life
azuar
adjective
vital; necessary for life; life-sustaining
azuli
noun, alive
life-giver; source; origin
azzhuli
noun, feminine
mother
bacha
noun, dead
departure
bachan
verb
to depart, to go
burzi
noun, alive
strength; firmness; force; power
burzin
verb
to strengthen; to reinforce; to empower; to force
burzishi
adjective
strong; firm; forceful; powerful
burzuir
adjective
strengthening; empowering
bvecha
noun, alive
back; spine; rear
bviri
noun, dead
weakness; fragility
bvirin
verb
to weaken; to give way
bvirishi
adjective
weak; fragile; delicate
bysi
noun, alive
gibbous moon; convexity; right-hand side
bysishi
adjective
gibbous; convex; more than half full; right-handed
chanta
noun, divine
magic; sorcery
chantan
verb
to cast magic
chantazha
adjective
imbued with magic
chanteta
noun, divine
magic spell
chantuar
adjective
generates or imbues with magic
chantuli
noun, alive
magician; sorcerer
chasha
noun, alive
fire; orange color
chashadha
noun, alive
inferno; fiery explosion; eruption
chashadhan
verb
to explode; to erupt
chashan
verb
to set on fire; to burn; to cook; to make or become orange
chashazha
adjective
fiery; aflame; orange
chashnena
noun, alive
fireplace; oven; stove
chashusi
noun, alive
candle; small flame
chat
number, alive
four
chata
noun, alive
hand; quartet
chatan
verb
to slap; to clap
crusi
noun, dead
crescent moon; concavity; left-hand side
crusishi
adjective
crescent; concave; less than half full; left-handed
cshara
noun, alive
fish
csharan
verb
to swim
curni
noun, alive
skin; flesh
darca
noun, divine
reflection; repetition; twin; duplicate; copy
darcan
verb
to reflect; to repeat; to duplicate; to copy
darcaza
noun, alive
resurrection
darcazan
verb
to resurrect; to resuscitate; to wake; to regain consciousness
darcazha
adjective
reflected; repeated
darcuar
adjective
reflecting; repeating
darculi
noun, divine
mirror; reflector; repeater; duplicator; copier
dartha
noun, divine
compassion; empathy; affection; brotherly love
darthan
verb
to care for; to empathize with; to love
darthazha
adjective
cared for; loved
darthuar
adjective
caring; compassionate; empathetic; loving
delva
noun, alive
chest; shoulder
dhava
noun, alive
man; brother
dhavadha
noun, alive
adult man; big brother
dhavazha
adjective
masculine; manly; brotherly
dhavusi
noun, alive
boy; son; little brother
dhreza
noun, divine
respect; honor
dhrezadha
noun, divine
simultaneous awe and terror
dhrezadhan
verb
to inspire awe and terror
dhrezadhazha
adjective
simultaneously awed and terrified
dhrezan
verb
to respect; to honor
dhrezazha
adjective
respectful
dhuradha
noun, alive
boulder
dhuri
noun, alive
rock; stone; brick
dhurin
verb
to build with or carve from stone or brick
dhurishi
adjective
stony; rocky; made of stone or brick
dhurnena
noun, alive
quarry; mine
dhuruli
noun, alive
mason; stoneworker
dhurusi
noun, alive
pebble
dhyn
noun, divine
country; land; realm
dlyni
noun, alive
ear; sound; noise; hearing
dlynuir
adjective
noisy, loud
drela
noun, alive
person; sibling; child
dreladha
noun, alive
adult; big sibling
dreluset
noun, alive
toy
drelusi
noun, alive
young child; baby; little sibling
drelusin
verb
to play
drelusishi
adjective
childish; playful
dreza
noun, divine
dexterity; physical skill
drezan
verb
to practice or display physical skill or dexterity
drezazha
adjective
dexterous; physically skilled
druchi
noun, divine
deity; god; parent
druchin
verb
to create and sustain as a deity; to parent
druchishi
adjective
divine; godly; parental
drudhi
noun, alive
wood
drudhin
verb
to work with or craft from wood
drudhishi
adjective
wooden
drudhuli
noun, alive
woodworker; carpenter
druvadha
noun, dead
horror; abhorrence
druvadhan
verb
to horrify
druvadhazha
adjective
horrified
druvadhuar
adjective
horrifying; horrific; abhorrent
druvi
noun, dead
disturbance; disgust
druvin
verb
to disturb; to disgust
druvishi
adjective
disturbed; disgusted
druvuir
adjective
disturbing; disgusting
druvusi
noun, dead
discomfort
druvusin
verb
to disconcert
druvusishi
adjective
uncomfortable
druvusuir
adjective
disconcerting
dryvti
noun, divine
motion; movement; activity
dryvtin
verb
to move; to act
dryvtishi
adjective
mobile; active
dul
number, divine
two
duli
noun, divine
pair; duo; couple
duri
noun, alive
arm
duthdrela
noun, dead
ancestor
duthdrelazha
adjective
ancestral
duthi
noun, dead
predecessor
duthin
verb
to come before; to preceed
duthishi
noun, dead
previous; old
duthlasa
noun, dead
last month
duthnacta
noun, dead
yesterday; last night
duthnodha
noun, dead
last year
duthylvi
noun, dead
yesterday morning
eb
number, dead
zero
eba
noun, dead
new moon; nothingness; emptiness; absence
eban
verb
to empty; to vanish; to disappear; to be absent
ebazha
adjective
empty; absent
en
number, divine
seven
ez
number, divine
five
haz
no
haza
noun, dead
denial; refutation; contradiction; negation
hazan
verb
to deny; to refute; to contradict; to negate
hedha
noun, divine
cloak; clothing
hedhan
verb
to wear; to clothe; to dress
hedhazha
adjective
clothed; dressed
hedhnena
noun, divine
wardrobe; closet; dresser
hedhuli
noun, alive
tailor; seamstress
hyshadha
noun, dead
silence
hyshadhan
verb
to make or be silent
hyshadhazha
adjective
silent
hyshi
noun, dead
quietude
hyshin
verb
to make or be quiet
hyshishi
adjective
quiet
hyshlylvhi
noun, dead
whisper
hyshlylvhin
verb
to whisper
hyshlylvhishi
adjective
whispering
ithli
noun, dead
bow (and arrow)
ithlin
verb
wield a bow and arrow
ithluli
noun, dead
archer
lhasa
noun, alive
eyelid; eyelash
lhasan
verb
to blink
lhetha
noun, divine
pose; poise; posture; stance
lhethan
verb
to assume a posture, position, or stance
lhethazha
adjective
posed; poised
lhora
noun, dead
drainage, lethargy, inertia, emptiness
lhoran
verb
to drain, to sap, to empty
lhorazha
adjective
drained, lethargic, inert, empty
lhulvi
noun, alive
dog; wolf; canine
lhur
number, dead
eight
lhuri
noun, dead
moon
lhurliri
noun, dead
moonlight
lhysi
noun, dead
stillness
lhysin
verb
to make or be still, to hold in place, to stop
lhysishi
adjective
still, motionless
liradha
noun, alive
overwhelming brightness; pure white color
liradhazha
adjective
overwhelmingly bright; pure white
lireta
noun, alive
ray or beam of light
liri
noun, alive
light; brightness; white color
lirin
noun, alive
to brighten; to illuminate; to lighten; to whiten
lirishi
adjective
bright; light; white
liruir
noun, alive
illuminating; brightening; lightening; whitening
liruli
noun, alive
lamp; torch; light; illuminator
loba
noun, alive
foot
loban
verb
to walk
lobdhuri
noun, alive
foundation; cornerstone
lurzi
noun, dead
lie; falsehood; deception; fakery; dishonesty
lurzin
verb
to lie; to deceive; to fake
lurzishi
adjective
fake; false
lurzuir
adjective
deceptive; deceitful; dishonest
lurzuli
noun, dead
liar; faker; deceiver; dishonest person
luvdryvti
noun, feminine
water current
luveta
noun, feminine
drop of water
luvi
noun, feminine
water; liquid; moisture
luvin
verb
wetten; moisten; liquify
luvishi
adjective
wet; moist
luvnena
noun, feminine
pond; lake
luvumadha
noun, feminine
sea; ocean
luvumusi
noun, feminine
puddle
lyli
noun, alive
mouth
lylmocta
noun, alive
tongue
lylmoctan
verb
to lick; to taste
lylvhi
noun, divine
speech; language
macva
noun, dead
shock; startlement
macva
noun, dead
shock; surprise; astonishment; fear
macvadha
noun, dead
panic; hysteria
macvadhan
verb
to panic
macvadhazha
adjective
panicked; hysterical
macvadhuar
adjective
panic-inducing
macvan
verb
to shock; to startle
macvan
verb
to shock; to surprise; to astonish; to frighten; to startle
macvazha
adjective
shocked; startled
macvazha
adjective
shocked; surprised; astonished; frightened; startled
macvuar
adjective
shocking; startling
macvuar
adjective
shocking; surprising; astonishing; frightening; startling
macvuli
noun, dead
shocker; frightener; one who surprises or astonishes
macvusi
noun, dead
astonishment; surprise
macvusin
verb
to astonish; to surprise
macvusishi
adjective
astonished; surprised
macvusuir
adjective
astonishing; surprising
mazma
noun, dead
sickness; disease; illness
mazman
verb
to make or become sick or ill
mazmazha
adjective
sick; ill; diseased
mazmuar
adjective
sickening
metha
noun, alive
knowledge
methan
verb
to know; to teach; to learn
methazha
adjective
knowledgeable
methnena
noun, alive
school
methuli
noun, alive
teacher
mocta
noun, alive
finger; toe
moctan
verb
to point; to poke
mornena
noun, divine
house (building)
morta
noun, divine
time; age; measurement; continuation
mortadha
noun, divine
eternity; forever; immortality; permanence
mortadhan
verb
to last or continue forever; to live forever
mortadhazha
adjective
eternal; unending; immeasurable; immortal; permanent
mortan
verb
to live; to age; to wait; to continue; to measure
mortazha
adjective
old; aged; patient; continuous
mortuli
noun, divine
clock; guage; scale; ruler
mortusan
verb
to last or continue a short time
mortusi
noun, divine
moment
mortusishi
adjective
momentary; brief; temporary
mraza
noun, divine
intellect; intelligence; cognitive skill
mrazan
verb
to practice or display cognitive skill or intelligence; to think through; to outsmart
mrazazha
adjective
intelligent; smart; clever; cognitively skilled
mvadha
noun, dead
anti-light; dark matter
mvadhan
verb
to destroy light
mvusi
noun, dead
shadow
mvusin
verb
to cast a shadow
mvusishi
adjective
shadowed; shadowy
mvusuli
noun, dead
one who casts a shadow
myrci
noun, dead
eclipse; occlusion; covering; mask; veil; curtain
myrcin
verb
to eclipse; to occlude; to cover; to hide; to mask; to veil
myrcishi
adjective
eclipsed; occluded; covered; hidden; veiled; masked
myrcuir
adjective
eclipsing; occluding; covering; hiding; veiling; masking
mzara
noun, divine
trade; exchange; purchase
mzaran
verb
to trade; to exchange; to purchase; to buy
mzareta
noun, divine
money
mzarnena
noun, divine
market; shop; store
mzaruli
noun, alive
buyer; customer
na
determiner, alive
its; his
Nacdrela
noun, alive
race name, “Night-Child”
nacdrelan
verb
to be a Nacdrel
nacta
noun, dead
nighttime; calendar day
nactadha
noun, dead
dead of night; darkest part of the night
Nactlylvhi
noun, divine
language name, “Night-Speech”
nactlylvhin
verb
to speak Nactlylvh
nactusi
noun, dead
dusk; purple color
nactusishi
adjective
dusky; purple
nama
noun, alive
it; itself; he; him; himself
nara
noun, alive
successor
naran
verb
to come after; to proceed
narazha
adjective
next; new
nardrela
noun, alive
descendant
narlasa
noun, alive
next month
narnacta
noun, alive
tomorrow; tomorrow night
narnodha
noun, alive
next year
narylvi
noun, alive
tomorrow morning
ne
determiner, divine
its
nena
noun, divine
place; location
nenan
verb
to be in a place; to locate
nenna
noun, divine
over there
nennan
verb
to be over there
nennazha
adjective
being over there
nentha
noun, divine
there
nenthan
verb
to be there
nenthazha
adjective
being there
nenzha
noun, divine
here
nenzhan
verb
to be here
nenzhazha
adjective
being here
neza
noun, dead
badness
Nezachim
noun, dead
god of evil
nezadha
noun, dead
evil
nezadhan
verb
to do or be evil
nezadhuar
adjective
evil
nezadhuli
noun, dead
evildoer
nezan
verb
to do or be bad or badly
nezeta
noun, dead
evil act or event
nezuli
noun, dead
one who does bad things, or does things badly
nezusi
noun, dead
annoyance
nezusin
verb
to annoy; to bother
nezusishi
adjective
annoyed; bothered
nezusuir
adjective
annoying; bothersome
nezusuli
noun, dead
one who annoys
nezuyr
adjective
bad
ni
determiner, feminine
its; her
nimi
noun, feminine
she; her; herself
nodha
noun, alive
head; skull
nodhan
verb
to nod; to shake one’s head
nosazha
adjective
stolen; taken; seized
nosva
noun, dead
theft; robbery; seizure
nosvan
verb
to steal; to take; to seize
nosvuli
noun, dead
theif; robber; bandit
nota
noun, divine
romance; love; darling; term of endearment
notan
verb
to love; to woo; to seduce
notazha
adjctive
romantic; loved; precious
notdhava
noun, masculine
boyfriend; male lover
notdrela
noun, alive
lover
notha
noun, alive
food; fuel
nothan
verb
to eat; to ingest; to digest; to consume
notuar
adjective
seductive; loving
notzhuli
noun, feminine
girlfriend; female lover
nu
determiner, dead
its; his; her
numi
noun, dead
it; itself; he; him; himself; she; her; herself
nuzadha
noun, alive
joy
nuzadhan
verb
to rejoice
nuzadhazha
adjective
joyful
nuzadhuar
adjective
causes joy
nuzi
noun, alive
happiness
nuzin
verb
to be happy; to smile; to grin
nuzishi
adjective
happy
nuzuir
adjective
causes happiness
nuzusi
noun, alive
contentment
nuzusin
verb
to be content
nuzusishi
adjective
content
nuzusuir
adjective
causes contentment
nvyri
noun, divine
number; amount; quantity
nvyrin
verb
to count; to number; to quantify; to measure; to weigh
nymi
noun, divine
it; itself
ocla
noun, alive
eye; vision; sense of sight
oclan
verb
to see; to look
oclazha
adjective
observant; watchful
ocuyl
adjective
visible
orba
noun, feminine
smoke; steam; fog; mist; vapor
orbadha
noun, feminine
thick smoke, mist, fog, or vapor
orban
verb
to billow and writhe like vapor
orbazha
adjective
smoky; cloudy; foggy; misty; steamy; vaporous
orbeta
noun, feminine
plume of smoke or steam; cloud
orbetadha
noun, feminine
thunderhead
orbetusi
noun, feminine
wisp of smoke, steam, fog, or mist; small cloud
orbusi
noun, feminine
thin smoke, mist, fog, or vapor
osa
noun, dead
bone
osan
verb
to remove or break a bone
osnena
noun, dead
coffin; sarcophagus; bed
otha
noun, alive
home; place of welcome, belonging, or comfort
raca
noun, alive
earth; ground; dirt; brown color
racan
verb
to bury; to plant; to sow; to make or become brown
racazha
adjective
earthen; dirty; brown
ravta
noun, alive
bird
ravtan
verb
to fly
rivi
noun, dead
gathering; harvest; collection
rivin
verb
to collect; to gather; to harvest; to reap
ryldi
noun, dead
beauty
ryldin
verb
to beautify
ryldishi
adjective
beautiful
ryvtadha
noun, dead
fury; rage
ryvtadhan
verb
to infuriate; enrage
ryvtadhazha
adjective
furious; enraged
ryvtadhuar
adjective
infuriating; enraging
ryvtazha
adjective
angry
ryvti
noun, dead
anger
ryvtin
verb
to anger
ryvtuir
adjective
angering
ryvtus
noun, dead
disgruntlement; annoyance
ryvtusin
verb
to disgruntle; to annoy
ryvtusishi
adjective
disgruntled; annoyed
ryvtusuir
adjective
annoying
sav
yes
sava
noun, alive
affirmation; confirmation; validation
savan
verb
to affirm; to confirm; to validate
shanta
noun, divine
song; music
shantan
verb
to sing; to whistle; to hum; to make music
shantazha
adjective
musical
shantuli
noun, alive
singer; musician
shymri
noun, alive
gold; yellow color
shymrishi
adjective
golden; yellow
slilhi
noun, alive
sun
slilliri
noun, alive
sunlight
svyni
noun, alive
blood; bodily fluid; red color
svynin
verb
to bleed; to redden
svynishi
adjective
bloody; red
syci
noun, dead
scythe; halberd; glaive
sycin
verb
to wield a scythe, halberd, or glaive
syculi
noun, dead
halberdier
sycusi
noun, dead
sickle
sycusin
verb
to wield a sickle
sylcurni
noun, alive
bark
sylduri
noun, alive
branch
sylmocta
noun, alive
twig; stick
syltresa
noun, alive
leaf
sylvadha
noun, alive
tree
sylvadhazha
adjective
forested; wooded
sylvadhnena
noun, alive
forest; woodland; woods
sylvi
noun, alive
plant; vegetation; green color
sylvin
verb
to sprout; to grow; to make or become green
sylvishi
adjective
overgrown; green
sylvloba
noun, alive
root
sylvnena
noun, alive
garden
sylvusi
noun, alive
grass; moss
sylvusishi
adjective
grassy; mossy
sylvusnena
noun, alive
field; meadow; lawn
sylzhaba
noun, alive
stem; trunk; log
syth
number, divine
three
sythi
noun, divine
trio; trinity; trifecta; triumvirate
tha
determiner, alive
your
thana
noun, alive
you; yourself
the
determiner, divine
your
thesna
noun, divine
twilight; border; gray color
thesnan
verb
straddle a boundary; make or become gray
thesnazha
adjective
gray
thi
determiner, feminine
your
thini
noun, feminine
you; yourself
thu
determiner, dead
your
thuni
noun, dead
you; yourself
thyni
noun, divine
you; yourself
tsava
noun, divine
monarchy; royalty; government
tsavan
verb
to rule; to reign; to govern
tsavazha
adjective
royal
tsavdhava
noun, alive
king
tsaveta
noun, divine
crown
tsavnena
noun, divine
palace
tsavuli
noun, alive
monarch; ruler
tsavzhuli
noun, feminine
queen
tsyli
noun, dead
snow
tsylin
verb
to snow
tsylishi
adjective
snowy
tvyci
noun, dead
rot; decay; garbage; waste; trash
tvycin
verb
to rot; to decay; to waste; to dispose of; to throw out
tvycishi
adjective
rotten; decayed; wasted
tvycnena
noun, dead
trash bin; garbage can; dump
tvycuir
adjective
wasteful
tvyculi
noun, dead
waster
tyradha
noun, dead
terror
tyradhan
verb
to terrify
tyradhazha
adjective
terrified
tyradhuar
adjective
terrifying
tyri
noun, dead
fear; fright
tyrin
verb
to scare; to frighten
tyrishi
adjective
scared; afraid; fearful; frightened
tyruir
adjective
scary; frightening
tyrusi
noun, dead
nervousness; unease; creepiness
tyrusin
verb
to creep out
tyrusishi
adjective
nervous; uneasy; creeped out
tyrusuir
adjective
creepy
uaech
noun, alive
increase, growth, improvement, upgrade
uaechin
verb
to increase, to grow, to improve, to upgrade
uaen
noun, dead
decrease, reduction, entropy, downgrade, degredation
uaenin
verb
to decrease, to reduce, to downgrade, to degrade
uil
noun, alive
aid, assistance, benefit
uilin
verb
to aid, to help, to assist, to benefit
uiluir
adjective
helpful, beneficial
uiluli
noun, alive
aide, helper, assistant, benefactor
ulhetha
noun, dead
reclined or lying posture
ulhethan
verb
to recline; to lie
ulhethazha
adjective
reclined; lying
umvadha
noun, dead
absolute darkness
umvadhan
verb
to darken completely, to completely blacken
umvadhazha
adjective
completely dark; pitch black
umvi
noun, dead
darkness; blackness
umvin
verb
to darken; to blacken
umvishi
adjective
dark; black
umvusi
noun, dead
dimness
umvusin
verb
to dim
umvusishi
adjective
dim
uor
noun, dead
detriment, woe, harm, hindrance
uoran
verb
to deter, to cause woe, to harm, to hinder
uoruar
adjective
detrimental, harmful, hindering
urzhi
noun, divine
metal; iron; steel
urzhin
verb
to work with or craft from metal
urzhishi
adjective
metal; metallic; iron; steel
urzhnena
noun, divine
forge; blacksmith
urzhuli
noun, alive
metalworker; blacksmith
uvadha
noun, dead
grief; mourning
uvadhan
verb
to grieve; to mourn
uvadhazha
adjective
grief-stricken; mournful
uvadhuar
adjective
grievous
uvi
noun, dead
sadness; sorrow
uvin
verb
to sadden
uvishi
adjective
sad; sorrowful
uvluvi
noun, dead
tears; rain
uvluvin
verb
to cry; to rain
uvluvishi
adjective
crying; rainy
uvuir
adjective
saddening
uvusi
noun, dead
disappointment
uvusin
verb
to disappoint
uvusishi
adjective
disappointed
uvusuir
adjective
disappointing
vesca
noun, alive
arrival, approach
vescan
verb
to arrive, to come, to approach
vesta
noun, alive
body
vhela
noun, alive
defense; fortress; castle
vhelan
verb
to protect; to guard; to defend
vhelazha
adjective
protected; guarded; defended
vheluli
noun, alive
guard; sentinel; defender; protector
vheluyr
adjective
protective; defensive; guarding
vhena
noun, dead
tooth; fang
vhenan
verb
to bite; to chew; to gnaw
vheza
noun, divine
way; path; road; trail; method; conduit
vhezan
verb
to guide; to follow a path; to employ a method
vhezazha
adjective
guided
vhezeta
noun, divine
guidepost; sign
vhezuli
noun, divine
guide
vhezuyr
adjective
guiding
vhlaca
noun, alive
cat; feline
vhlosa
noun, alive
nose; sense of smell; scent
vhlosan
verb
to sniff; to smell
vhlosuyr
adjective
smelly; odorous; pungent; fragrant
vhluri
noun, alive
flower
vhlurin
verb
to blossom; to bloom; to flower
vhlurishi
adjective
flowery; covered in flowers
vhrosa
noun, dead
cold
vhrosadha
noun, dead
freezing cold
vhrosadhan
verb
to make or become freezing
vhrosadhazha
adjective
freezing, frigid, frozen
vhrosan
verb
to make or be cold
vhrosazha
adjective
cold
vhrosusi
noun, dead
coolness, chilliness
vhrosusin
verb
to make or become cool
vhrosusishi
adjective
cool, chilly
vlydi
noun, alive
horse; pony; donkey; steed
vlydin
verb
to ride a horse; to ride any animal
vocha
noun, divine
cart; carriage; vehicle
vochan
verb
to drive, ride, or travel by vehicle
vreth
noun, alive
hope; encouragement
vrethan
verb
to hope; to encourage
vrethazha
adjective
hopeful; hopefully; encouraged
vrethuar
adjective
encouraging
vrethuli
noun, alive
hope-bringer; encourager
vrushadha
noun, alive
burning heat
vrushadhan
verb
to burn or make extremely hot
vrushadhazha
adjective
extremely hot, burning
vrushi
noun, alive
heat
vrushin
verb
to heat
vrushishi
adjective
hot
vrushusi
noun, alive
warmth
vrushusin
verb
to warm
vrushusishi
adjective
warm
vysci
noun, alive
entrails; organs; guts
vyscin
verb
disembowel; dissect
ylddhava
noun, alive
husband
ylddrela
noun, alive
spouse
yldi
noun, alive
connection; togetherness; fusion; marriage; wedding
yldin
verb
to connect; to come together; to bind together; to fuse; to marry; to wed
yldishi
adjective
connected; together; bound together; fused; married; wedded
yldzhuli
noun, feminine
wife
ylhetha
noun, divine
seated posture
ylhethan
verb
to sit
ylhethazha
adjective
seated
ylvadha
noun, alive
middle of the day; brightest, hottest part of the day
ylvi
noun, alive
daytime
ylvusi
noun, alive
dawn
yndi
noun, dead
hunger; emptiness; shortage; lack
yndin
verb
to hunger; to be out of fuel
yndishi
adjective
hungry; empty; lacking
yrsi
noun, alive
fullness; satisfaction; plenty; bounty; contentment
yrsin
verb
to be full; to be content; to be satisfied
yrsishi
adjective
full; satisfied; content; plentiful; bountiful
yvri
noun, divine
order; law; regulation; organization; moderation; balance
yvrin
verb
to legislate; to regulate; to organize; to moderate; to balance
yvrishi
adjective
ordered; lawful; regulated; organized; moderate; balanced
za
determiner
the
zadha
noun, dead
sword
zadhada
noun, dead
greatsword
zadhadan
verb
to wield a greatsword
zadhaduli
noun, dead
greatswordsman
zadhan
verb
to wield a sword
zadhnena
noun, dead
sheath; scabbard
zadhuli
noun, dead
swordsman
zadhusi
noun, dead
dagger; knife
zadhusin
verb
to wield a dagger
zadhusuli
noun, dead
knife fighter
zena
noun, dead
mortality
zenazha
adjective
mortal
zeta
noun, dead
death; end
zetan
verb
to die; to kill; to end
zetazha
adjective
dead; deathly
zetnena
noun, dead
grave; bed
Zetres
noun, dead
goddess of death
zetuli
noun, dead
killer; executioner
zetusi
noun, dead
sleep; unconsciousness
zetusin
verb
to sleep; to be unconscious
zetusishi
adjective
asleep; unconscious
zetuyr
adjective
deadly; lethal; fatal
zha
determiner, alive
my
zhaba
noun, alive
leg
zhaban
verb
to kick
zhama
noun, alive
I; me; myself
zhana
noun, divine
art; craft
zhanan
verb
to practice an art or craft
zhanazha
adjective
artful; creative
zhe
determiner, divine
my
zhi
determiner, feminine
my
zhimi
noun, feminine
I; me; myself
zhu
determiner, dead
my
zhuladha
noun, feminine
adult woman; big sister
zhuli
noun, feminine
woman; sister
zhulishi
adjective
feminine; womanly; sisterly
zhulusi
noun, feminine
girl; daughter; little sister
zhumi
noun, dead
I; me; myself
zhymi
noun, divine
I; me; myself
zi
determiner
the
zleta
noun, dead
dance; fight; interaction
zletadha
noun, dead
ball (dance); war
zletadhuli
noun, dead
soldier; warrior
zletan
verb
to dance; to fight; to interact
zletuli
noun, dead
dancer; fighter
zota
noun, dead
undeath
zotan
verb
to make or become undead
zotazha
adjective
undead
zrela
noun, alive
truth; reality; honesty
zrelan
verb
to tell the truth
zrelazha
adjective
honest; real
zreluli
noun, alive
honest person
zu
determiner
the
zulhi
noun, dead
ghost; spirit; soul
zulhishi
adjective
ghostly; spiritual
zulnosazha
adjective
necromantic
zulnosva
noun, dead
evil necromancy
zulnosvan
verb
to commit evil necromancy
zulnosvuli
noun, dead
evil necromancer
zut
number, dead
one
zuti
noun, dead
loneliness; solitude; abandonment
zutin
verb
to leave alone; to abandon
zutishi
adjective
alone; lonely; solitary; abandoned
zutraca
noun, alive
island
zvaca
noun, alive
electricity, electrical charge
zvacan
verb
to electrify, to charge with electricity, to electrocute
zvacazha
adjective
electrified, charged with electricity, electric
zviradha
noun, feminine
storm
zviradhan
verb
to storm
zviradhazha
adjective
stormy
zvirdryvti
noun, feminine
wind; air current
zvirdryvtin
verb
to blow
zvirdryvtishi
adjective
windy
zviri
noun, feminine
air; blue color
zvirin
verb
to inflate; to make or become blue
zvirishi
adjective
airy; inflated; blue
zvirnena
noun, feminine
sky