Nactlylvh

Language of the Night

Introduction

Nactlylvh, or Night Speech, is the language spoken primarily by the Nactdrel. Since Nactdrel are a race rather than a country, their language is not centered in any particular place. Rather, it can be found wherever Nactdrel have dwelt or exercised influence. However, Nactdrel do exhibit a preference for colder climates and longer nights, so Nactlylvh and its derivatives are more common toward polar regions.

Classical & Neo Nactlylvh

Nactlylvh can be crudely divided into two forms.

Classical Nactlylvh is the oldest form. Most Nactdrel speak classical Nactlylvh, as do older or more formal speakers of other races. It is fairly static, having changed little over the generations. This is partly because Nactdrel are immortal—many of the original speakers are still alive—and partly because they keep to themselves, limiting the influence of outside cultures.

Neo Nactlylvh—sometimes called corrupted Nactlylvh by more elitist speakers of the classical form—evolved as a result of other races adopting the language of the Nactdrel. A few Nactdrel themselves speak neo Nactlylvh; usually these are younger individuals who spend a great deal of time amongst other races. The neo form is in a state of constant evolution, gradually taking on qualities of surrounding languages. As such, it includes a variety of dialects. These dialects have not diverged greatly; speakers of different dialects can understand each other without much difficulty.

At its most extreme, the contrast between classical and neo Nactlylvh is like comparing a soft-spoken gentleman to a rambunctious cowboy; their words are mostly the same, but one demonstrates greater finesse and subtlety.

Since the differences between classical and neo Nactlylvh are largely stylistic, they can be learned as a single language. Simply bear in mind the guidelines for whichever form you wish to speak.

Notation

In this guide, characters between slashes (e.g., /b̪/) are International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) representations. If you aren’t familiar with IPA, you can hear most of the pronunciations here:

Language samples are given with interlinear glosses (e.g., child-LN.ERG-PL). You can learn how to read gloss notation here:

Phonology

Although Nactdrel are capable of loud outbursts, they are overall a soft-spoken race. As a general rule, voiced phonemes in classical Nactlylvh are only voiced enough to distinguish them from their unvoiced counterparts. A fluent speaker should always seem on the verge of whispering. Neo Nactlylvh, however, permits a broader range of distinction.

Consonants

Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Velar Uvular
Stop b t d c
Fricative vh v th dh s z sh zh ch h r
Approximant lh l
Nasal m n
Consonant Inventory

Many of the consonants are pronounced similarly to English, with some exceptions.

Consonant IPA Description
b /b̪/ English b with upper teeth against lower lip
c /k/ English k as in kill, never c as in cell
ch /x/ Scottish ch as in loch
d /d/ English d as in dark
dh /ð/ English th as in then
h /χ/ Guttural hiss, with optional growl or purr
l /l/ English l as in lake, never as in cool
lh /l̥/ Whispered English l
m /ɱ/ English m with upper teeth against lower lip, as in symphony
n /n/ English n as in night
r /ʁ/ Guttural or French r, with optional growl or purr
s /s/ English s as in sigh
sh /ʃ/ English sh as in shy
t /t/ English t as in time
th /θ/ English th as in thin
v /v/ English v as in vapor
vh /f/ English f as in fate
z /z/ English z as in zero
zh /ʒ/ English s as in vision, French j as in jour
Consonant Pronunciation Guide

Fricatives—especially sibilants—are slightly drawn out compared to English. This is even more pronounced in syllabic codas.

In the more divergent dialects of neo Nactlylvh, adjacent consonants tend to agree in voicing. The first consonant usually sets the voicing, but some dialects give control to the second instead.

Certain neo Nactlylvh dialects make h silent when it appears as the first or last sound in a word.

Vowels

Front Mid Back
High i u
Mid-High y
Mid e o
Mid-Low oe
Low a au
Vowel Inventory

Unlike English, each vowel has a single pronunciation. With the exception of diphthongs, Nactlylvh vowels do not change their pronunciation based on their surroundings.

Vowel IPA Description
a /a/ English a as in father or hat, depending on your accent
au /ɒ/ English o as in not, somewhere between “ah” and “oh”
e /ɛ/ English e as in wet
i /i/ English ee as in free
o /o̞/ English o as in alone
oe /ə/ English u as in just
u /u/ English u as in lunar
y /ɪ/ English i as in mist
Vowel Pronunciation Guide

Double vowels are pronounced by elongating the sound. Classical speakers often insert an h-like hiss between the vowels. This has led some neo dialects to include the h in the spelling, while others represent it with an apostrophe. All of the following are equivalent:

  • syylv
  • syhylv
  • sy’ylv

Consistency should be observed. This guide will use the classical spellings throughout; that is, with nothing separating consecutive vowels.

Diphthongs

Nactlylvh diphthongs are divided into classical and neo groupings. Classical diphthongs are the oldest, and are always pronounced as a single syllable.

Diphthong IPA Description
ai /ai/ English i as in spine
ei /ɛi/ English a as in rake
Classical Diphthongs

Neo diphthongs are the result of sound change as other races began using Nactylylvh. They are only pronounced as one syllable in neo Nactlylvh; classical speakers pronounce them as two syllables, with each vowel retaining its pure sound. The second phoneme in a neo diphthong may be a classical diphthong.

Neo diphthongs are formed by prepending i or u to another vowel. A neo speaker will pronounce the initial i as /j/ (English y as in year) and the initial u as /w/ (as in quiet).

Diphthong IPA Description
ia /ja/ “yah”
iai /jai/ “yigh”
iau /jɒ/ “yaw” or “yough”
ie /jɛ/ “yeh”
iei /jɛi/ “yay”
ii /ji/ “yee”
io /jo̞/ “yoh”
ioe /jə/ “yuh”
iu /ju/ “yoo”
iy /jɪ/ “yih”
ua /wa/ “wah”
uai /wai/ “wigh”
uau /wɒ/ “waw” or “wough”
ue /wɛ/ “weh”
uei /wɛi/ “way”
ui /wi/ “wee”
uo /wo̞/ “woh”
uoe /wə/ “wuh”
uu /wu/ “woo”
uy /wɪ/ “wih”
Neo Diphthongs

Phonotactics

Given the following:

  • C = Consonant
  • S = Stop
  • F = Fricative
  • A = Approximant
  • N = Nasal
  • V = Vowel

Nactlylvh displays the syllable pattern:

(C,CF,CA,FC)V(V)(C,SF,FC,AC,NF,ct)(l,r)

Syllable Pattern

This pattern generalizes the following rules:

  • All syllables must have a nucleus (vowel cluster)
  • If the syllable is a regular root, it must have a coda (closing consonant cluster); this is optional in irregular roots
  • Onsets may be:
    • A single consonant
    • Any consonant followed by a fricative or approximant
    • A fricative followed by any other consonant
  • Nuclei may be a single vowel or diphthong
  • Codas may be:
    • A single consonant
    • A stop followed by a fricative
    • A fricative or approximant followed by any other consonant
    • A nasal followed by a fricative
    • C followed by t
    • Any of the above followed by l or r

There are several exceptions to these rules:

  • A consonant is never followed by itself
  • A consonant is never followed by its voiced or unvoiced counterpart, except as a result of concatenation
  • Approximants in onsets may only be followed by r
  • Approximants may only follow r in a coda consonant cluster
  • Ch may only follow approximants and r in a coda consonant cluster
  • R never appears as the first phoneme in an onset consonant cluster
  • H never appears as part of a consonant cluster

Therefore, umvr is a Nactlylvh syllable following the allowed pattern VNFr. However, cmaz cannot be a Nactlylvh syllable, since cm (generalized by the pattern SN) is not allowed.

Medial consonant clusters may appear when inflecting roots or creating compound words. When these clusters form, the following rules are applied:

  • Approximants (l and lh) and uvular fricatives (h and r) may only appear as the first or last phoneme in a consonant cluster; otherwise they are dropped
  • Double consonants are merged

Therefore, Nactlylvh is formed by concatenating nactr (night) and lylvh (speech). The r in nactr is dropped since it appears in the middle of the consonant cluster ctrl.

Syllabification

Nactlylvh demonstrates a few quirks when breaking words into syllables.

As noted earlier, diphthongs are handled differently in classical and neo Nactlylvh. Depending on which form you speak, ie may be broken down in one of two ways:

  • i-e
  • ie

Double vowels may or may not create an extra syllable, depending on the speaker. Dryvtazuun may be either:

  • dryvt-a-zuun
  • dryvt-a-zu-un

Classical speakers are more likely to pronounce the latter. Note that double vowels always constitute a single syllable when determining stress, however.

By themselves, l and r are not syllabic; ithl and nactr are considered one-syllable words.

Whenever possible, do not place a syllable break within a root. Nactdrel is broken down as Nact-drel.

If a word is broken down properly, each syllable will adhere to the allowed syllable patterns described by Nactlylvh phonotactics.

Stress

Classical Nactlylvh stress is subtle; the stressed syllable should be just barely more emphasized than the rest of the word. Neo Nactlylvh makes the emphasis more obvious.

Stress is always placed on the nucleus of the stressed syllable. If the nucleus is made of multiple vowels, the second vowel takes the stress.

  • zhul
  • syylv

In most multisyllabic words, stress is placed on the penultimate syllable.

  • thenuvi
  • Nezachimuvi

There are a few exceptions. Articles and demonstratives hyphenated to a noun count as separate words for the purpose of determining stress, and are always stressed on the last syllable.

  • drelu-zatram

Verbs (except infinitives) are also stressed on the last vowel.

  • zecryn
  • zetrazun
  • dryvtazuun

Alphabetical Order

Nactlylvh uses an alphabetical order that differs from English:

z zh v vh t th s sh r h l lh d dh c ch b m n y oe u i o e a au

Alphabetical Order

For simplicity, however, this guide will use English alphabetical order, treating digraphs (e.g., ch, th, etc.) as two separate letters.

Morphology

Roots

Almost all Nactlylvh words derive from noun roots, most of which are regular. Regular roots must:

  • Be monosyllabic
  • Contain a nucleus (usually called the stem vowel) and coda
  • Undergo every form of nominal inflection (class, number, case, etc.)

Therefore:

  • Zy (time-neuter the) is irregular; it is monosyllabic and inflects by class and number, but it lacks a coda and does not inflect by case
  • Set (and) is irregular; it has a nucleus (-e-) and coda (-t), but it never undergoes any form of nominal inflection because it is a conjunction
  • Umvr (darkness) is regular; it has an nucleus (u-), and coda (-mvr), and it is a noun that inflects by class, number, and case

No two roots share the same onset-coda combination. Although different roots are theoretically obtainable by changing only the nucleus, this simply does not occur in Nactlylvh.

Irregular roots are roots that fail to meet the criteria above. Articles are irregular, as are conjunctions and most numbers.

Class

Nactlylvh nouns are assigned a class, which controls how the root inflects. This class is determined by domain and gender. There are three domains (time, life, death) and three genders (neuter, masculine, feminine), producing a total of seven possible classes—the time domain is never combined with the masculine or feminine genders.

Time Life Death
Neuter Time-Neuter Life-Neuter Death-Neuter
Masculine - Life-Masculine Death-Masculine
Feminine - Life-Feminine Death-Feminine
Noun Classes

Classes are often abbreviated for convenience (e.g., time-neuter = TN, death-feminine = DF, etc.).

Nouns are organized into classes on a natural basis, not a lexical basis, meaning you can generally determine the proper class based on what the word means.

Domain

Animate (or once-animate) entities are assigned their domain as one would expect; living things always belong to the life domain, while dead things belong to the death domain.

The death domain is actually slightly more complicated than that. In addition to traditionally dead things, it is used for undead and spirits. It can also be used to distinguish between a living being’s physical life and spiritual life.

The death domain may be used to create nuance. A married couple might refer to each other in the death domain as a form of intimacy (speaking to each other’s souls). Enemies might do the same thing, but to communicate a threat (“you’re dead!”). The death domain is also sometimes used to make a plea. This is akin to appealing to the listener’s conscience, and is usually reserved for when someone’s life is at stake.

One should be careful when using the death domain to refer to living beings. In the wrong context, it can come across as inappropriately intimate (bordering on sexual harassment) or violently aggressive.

When talking about someone’s death, it may be unclear which domain to use. Are you talking about a living person who died, or a dead person? The answer lies in context.

Imagine two people, A and B, talking. A asks how C is doing, and B answers, “C died.” C would take the death domain, because he is dead, and B is simply stating this fact. However, if A tells a story about C, and the story goes “and then C died,” C would take the life domain, because he was alive until the exact moment of death. Every mention of C thereafter would take the death domain.

There are still gray areas of course. The safest rule is to assume life unless you are certain of death.

Inanimate entities are more arbitrary. The guidelines below should prove helpful:

  • Time: time, balance, order, transcendence, neutrality
  • Life: life, light, heat, positive, increase, up, gain
  • Death: death, dark, cold, negative, decrease, down, loss

It’s not hard to find exceptions. For instance, most people would expect ryld (beauty) to belong to the life domain, or maybe the time domain, but it actually belongs to the death domain. Most exceptions, like ryld, can be explained by Nactdrel culture.

Other exceptions occur when one word is appropriated for multiple definitions. For instance, chatr (hand) is naturally life-neuter, but chatr is also used for a military division. Although words dealing with violence and conflict usually belong to the death domain, chatr retains its life domain from the original meaning, hand.

When referring to an entity of mixed or unknown domain, you may default to the time domain.

Gender

Gender is easier. Animate entities belong to the gender represented by their biology. If the gender is unknown or the entity is a group of mixed gender, use the neuter. Inanimate entities are always neuter.

Class Letters

Class-based inflections make use of class letters. Each class has an associated vowel…

Time Life Death
Neuter y a u
Masculine - a u
Feminine - i u
Class Vowels

…and a pair of associated consonants, which are classified as “hard” and “soft”. In the table below, hard consonants are on the left, followed by their soft counterparts.

Time Life Death
Neuter b v t th d dh
Masculine - r h r h
Feminine - l lh l lh
Class Consonants

Nouns

Nactlylvh nouns inflect by class, case, and number. They may also be inverted or augmented.

Noun Class

All nouns have a default class, which dictates the case affixes. This class can be reassigned by using different affixes. This is only done, however, if a unique word does not already exist. For instance, life-neuter drelat (child, ergative) can become death-neuter drelud (dead child, ergative), but for life-masculine you would use radar (boy or son, ergative).

Morphosyntactic Alignment

Nactlylvh has ergative-absolutive alignment, which is different from English’s nominative-accusative alignment.

In English, transitive and intransitive subjects are given the same semantic role and use the nominative case, while transitive objects use the accusative case.

In Nactlylvh, intransitive subjects and transitive objects have the same semantic role and use the absolutive case, while transitive subjects use the ergative case.

To make this clear, consider the English verbs break, die, and kill.

“He kills people” is a transitive sentence. The subject is acting out the verb, therefore (in Nactlylvh) he takes the ergative case. Meanwhile, the direct object people is being acted upon by the verb, and so takes the absolutive case.

“He dies” is an intransitive sentence. The subject is not acting out the verb; the verb is happening to him. Therefore, even though he is the subject, it takes the absolutive case as if it were the direct object.

English often has separate verbs for transitive and intransitive sentences, but Nactlylvh does not. That’s where the English example break comes in.

“He broke the window” works exactly like the kill example above. He takes the ergative case and window takes the absolutive. On the other hand, “the window broke” works exactly like the die example. Window takes the absolutive case in both examples because it serves the same semantic role; it is being acted upon.

All Nactlylvh verbs behave like English break. Nactlylvh die and kill are a single word, and the meaning is determined by the case of the subject.

It’s also worth mentioning the reflexive case. This is used when the subject and the object are the same entity, as in “I hurt myself.” English requires both a subject and a special reflexive object (myself). Nactlylvh only requires a reflexive subject.

Case

Nactlylvh words change based on their purpose in a sentence. This is called case. English has remnants of a case system, observable in its pronouns (he/him, I/me, etc.). Nactlylvh’s case system is extensive, but this is balanced by a lack of prepositions. Where English would use a prepositional phrase, Nactlylvh can often get by with a single noun. This case system also allows for free word order; a noun’s exact meaning is determined by its case rather than its position in the sentence. Cases are formed by adding a suffix to the root.

The vocative case is the citation form, and is simply the root (or compound root) without any affix. It is used for addresses, exclamations, titles, and any other situation not covered by any of the other cases.

The ergative, absolutive, and reflexive suffixes are class-based:

TN LN LM LF DN DM DF Meaning
Ergative -yb -at -ar -il -ud -ur -ul Transitive subject
Absolutive -yv -ath -ah -ilh -udh -uh -ulh Intransitive subject, transitive object
Reflexive -ybyv -atath -arah -ililh -ududh -uruh -ululh Reflexive subject/object
Morphosyntactic Alignment Cases
Namar tzevdah-za nzecrabet.
/ˈnaɱ.aʁ ˈtzɛvd.aχ za nzɛkʁ.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
3.LM-LM.ERG king-LM.ABS the.LM murder-IND-PST.PFV
He killed the king.
Tzevdah-za zetrabet.
/ˈtzɛvd.aχ za zɛkʁ.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
king-LM.ABS the.LM death-IND-PST.PFV
The king died.
Zhimililh shynabet.
/ʒiɱ.ˈil.il̥ ʃɪn.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
1.LF-LF.REFL pain-IND-PST.PFV
I hurt myself.

All other cases are the same regardless of class:

Suffix English Equivalents Meaning
Locative -azhi in, at, on Exact spatial or temporal location
Adessive -ishi near, by, around, with Approximate spatial or temporal location, companions
Abessive -achai far from, away, without, not during Spatial or temporal absence, absence of companions
Perlative -uri through, between, during, throughout Movement through or between someting, temporal duration
Lative -avtre to, toward, into, onto, until, for Movement toward something, temporal duration up to a point in time, recipients
Ablative -adai away, from, off, out, since, against Movement away from or opposed to something, temporal duration after a point in time
Antessive -anai before, in front of, above Before or above something
Postessive -urzi after, behind, beyond, below After or below something
Instrumental -ulai with, via, by, full of, possessing Means, companions, endowed with or characterized by something
Privative -ashai without, lacking Absence of means or companions, not endowed with or characterized by something
Benefactive -ubai for, of Beneficiaries, in support of someone or something
Aversive -esdre against, opposed to, afraid of Contrary to or against something, victims, fear of something
Genetive -uvi of, belonging to Possession, origination, membership
Causative -uzhai causing, resulting in Create, instigate, or cause something
Equative -avca as, like Equality, similarity
Adpositional Cases
Tyrzil-zi zebrudh selmabet namavtre.
/ˈtɪʁz.il ˈzɛb̪ʁ.uð sɛlɱ.a.ˈb̪ɛt naɱ.ˈavt.ʁɛ/
queen-LF.ERG the.LF sword-DN.ABS gift-IND-PST.PFV 3.LM-LAT
The queen gave him a sword.
Vredhar-zhi myrcabet zleturi-zu.
/ˈvʁɛð.aʁ ʒi ɱɪʁk.a.ˈb̪ɛt zlɛt.ˈu.ʁi zu/
brother-LM.ERG 1.LF veil-IND-PST.PFV battle-PRL the.DN
My brother hid during the battle.
Zhamar Uuvdhynazhi mortazen.
/ˈʒaɱ.aʁ uːv.ðɪn.ˈa.ʒi ɱoʁt.a.ˈzɛn/
1.LM-LM.ERG Uruvin-LOC time-IND-PRS.PROG
I live in Uruvin.

The genetive case can be used to show possession (e.g., rad zhemuvi, “son of me”), but more often possession is communicated through personal demonstratives (e.g., rad-zhe, “my son”).

The genetive case may be combined with personal demonstratives to create chains of ownership:

hedhr raduvi-ni
/χɛðʁ ʁad.ˈu.vi ni/
cloak son-GEN 3.LF
her son’s cloak

Plurals

Nouns that end with consonants are made plural by suffixing -u, while nouns that end with vowels are pluralized by suffixing -m. Pluralization is performed after any case suffixes have been applied.

zulhu
/ˈzul̥.u/
ghost-PL
ghosts
nemuvim
/nɛɱ.ˈu.viɱ/
3.LN-GEN-PL
belonging to them

Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns undergo a couple unique inflections. First, the stem vowel is substituted based on class, but not necessarily using the standard class vowel.

TN LN LM LF DN DM DF
First-Person zhy zhe zha zhi zho zhau zhu
Second-Person thy the tha thi tho thau thu
Third-Person ny ne na ni no nau nu
Second/Third-Person Honorific vy ve va vi vo vau vu
Personal Pronouns

Second, when inflecting by case, personal pronouns receive an extra suffix just prior to the case suffix.

Suffix
First-Person -m-
Second-Person -n-
Third-Person -m-
Second/Third-Person Honorific -s-
Personal Pronoun Case Pre-Suffixes
Query Pronouns

Prefixing cu- to certain nouns creates query pronouns. These terms are used in combination with the interrogative verbal mood to form questions.

Query Term Translation
cuzhect what
cuvhez how
cumort when
cunen where
cuzhet who
cuvuvn why
Query Pronouns

These pronouns inflect like normal nouns. Class and number depend on how much the asker knows about the answer; if they know nothing, the noun will be classed as time-neuter singular. If they know the answer will be multiple dead males, they will use the death-masculine plural. A specific class and number may also be used to guide the listener toward a certain answer.

Determiners

Nouns may be described by articles or demonstratives by hyphenating the desired determiner to the end of the noun.

Articles

Nactlylvh has definite articles, but not indefinite. Articles agree with the class and number of their head. Class agreement is formed by substituting the appropriate class vowel. Number agreement is formed by suffixing -m.

TN LN LM LF DN DM DF
Singular zy za za zi zu zu zu
Plural zym zam zam zim zum zum zum
Definite Articles
zulh-zu
/zul̥ zu/
ghost the.DN
the ghost
lelu-zim
/ˈlɛl.u ziɱ/
girl-PL the.LF-PL
the girls

A noun doesn’t necessarily take an article just because it does so in English. The most common examples are directions and positions, such as north and top. English uses the definite article to differentiate between prepositions (e.g., I went north) and nouns (e.g., I went to the north, I ascended to the top of the tower). Nactlylvh doesn’t have prepositions, so there is no need to distinguish; such words are always nouns and almost never require an article.

Zhamar bachabet dhurnavtre.
/ˈʒaɱ.aʁ b̪ax.a.ˈb̪ɛt ðuʁn.ˈavt.ʁɛ/
1.LM-LM.ERG departure-IND-PST.PFV north.LAT
I went (to the) north.
Zhamar tazedabet tazedavtre bvarduvi-zy.
/ˈʒaɱ.aʁ ta.zɛt.a.ˈb̪ɛt ta.zɛt.ˈavt.ʁɛ b̪vaʁd.ˈu.vi zɪ/
1.LM-LM.ERG L.height-IND-PST.PFV L.height-LOC tower-GEN the.TN
I ascended to the top of the tower.

Proper nouns almost never take articles, because the noun’s “properness” often serves the same function as an article; it designates a specific instance of a noun, so everyone knows which one we’re talking about. Therefore, where an English speaker would say “the Atlantic Ocean,” a Nactdrel would simply say “Atlantic Ocean.” There’s only one Atlantic Ocean, so the is redundant in Nactlylvh. It’s exactly how an English speaker would never use an article in conjunction with a country or a personal name. You would never say “I went to the France to visit the David.”

Zhematu lobabet Syylvnenuri Zulhulai.
/ʒɛɱ.ˈat.u lob̪.a.ˈb̪ɛt sɪːlv.nɛn.ˈu.ʁi zul̥.ˈu.lai/
1.LN-LN.ERG-PL foot-IND-PST.PFV Tree-Place-PRL Ghost-INS
We walked through (the) Haunted Forest.
Demonstratives

All demonstratives inflect by class and number in the same way as articles. However, some demonstratives are locked into a plural form and can only be attached to plural nouns.

The following demonstratives may be singular or plural (singular forms shown below):

TN LN LM LF DN DM DF
This/These dyv dav dav div duv duv duv
That/Those dythn dathn dathn dithn duthn duthn duthn
Another/Other nytr natr natr nitr nutr nutr nutr
Any vry vra vra vri vru vru vru
No/None hyz haz haz hiz huz huz huz
Singular-Plural Demonstratives
zebr-duv
/zɛb̪ʁ duv/
sword this
this sword
zebru-duvu
/ˈzɛb̪ʁ.u duv.ˈu/
sword-PL this-PL
these swords

The following demonstratives may only be plural (plural forms shown below):

TN LN LM LF DN DM DF
Few shym sham sham shim shum shum shum
Many/Lots svym svam svam svim svum svum svum
Most stym stam stam stim stum stum stum
All/Every trym tram tram trim trum trum trum
Plural Demonstratives
zebru-trum
/ˈzɛb̪ʁ.u tʁuɱ/
sword-PL every
every sword

Demonstratives can also be used as standalone pronouns, which must then inflect by case. Remember that case suffixes are applied prior to pluralization, so the plural-only demonstratives look rather different.

Dyvybu myrcabiet syylvurzi.
/dɪv.ˈɪ.b̪u ɱɪʁk.a.b̪i.ˈɛt sɪːlv.ˈuʁ.zi/
this.TN-TN.ERG-PL veil-IND-PST.PROG tree-POST
These were hiding behind a tree.
Staathu zetrabet.
/ˈstaːθ.u zɛkʁ.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
most.LN.ERG death-IND-PST.PFV
Most (of them) died.
Determiner Chaining

Certain demonstratives may be chained to articles. This is done by deleting the article’s plural suffix (if any) and concatenating the demonstrative.

drelu-zatram
/ˈdʁɛl.u za.ˈtʁaɱ/
child-PL the.LN-all.LN
all the children
Personal Demonstratives

Personal pronouns may be treated as demonstratives. When used as such, these pronouns may not be chained with articles. Additionally, unlike other determiners, their class and number correspond to the pronoun’s referrant rather than noun to which they are hyphenated.

drel-zhe
/dʁɛl ʒɛ/
child 1.LN
my child
drelu-zhe
/ˈdʁɛl.u ʒɛ/
child-PL 1.LN
my children
drel-zhem
/dʁɛl ʒɛɱ/
child 1.LN-PL
our child
drelu-zhem
/ˈdʁɛl.u ʒɛɱ/
child-PL 1.LN-PL
our children

Proper Nouns

As in English, proper nouns are capitalized. However, some proper nouns can become verbs (e.g., nactlylvhyn), and when used as such they are not capitalized. As a general rule, a word with a proper noun stem is only capitalized if it refers specifically to the entity from which it derives its “properness”.

Inversion

Any noun can be inverted by reversing the frontness/backness of the stem vowel.

zhot
/ʒo̞t/
not-person

If the stem vowel is y or oe, reverse the height rather than the frontness.

noeld
/nəld/
not-success

Very rarely, inversion is performed to create an opposite, but most opposites have their own unique entry in the Nactlylvh lexicon. More often, it’s done to create an extra dimension of distinction or nuance. In the examples above, it could mean you’re talking about something that seems like a person, but is not.

Inversion can also be used in a sarcastic or jocular manner. If a know-it-all is constantly spouting useless facts, one might say he is full of moth (non-knowledge).

Augmentation

Any noun can be augmented by doubling the stem vowel.

dhaav
/ðaːv/
manly man
nlyys
/nlɪːs/
complete destruction

Sometimes this results in a new concept with a completely different meaning from the original:

sylv
/sɪlv/
plant
syylv
/sɪːlv/
tree

Verbs

Any noun can be turned into a verb by applying the correct suffix. Verbs conjugate based on tense, aspect, and mood.

Infinitive Past Present Future
Perfective -yn -abet -azun -anuv
Progressive -iyn -abiet -azen -anur
Habitual -ynyn -abenet -azudhun -anuruv
Completive -yyn -abehet -azuun -anuuv
Verbal Tenses and Aspects
selmyn
/sɛlɱ.ˈɪn/
gift-INF
to give
selmabet
/sɛlɱ.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
gift-IND-PST.PFV
gave
selmazen
/sɛlɱ.a.ˈzɛn/
gift-IND-PRS.PROG
is giving
selmanuruv
/sɛlɱ.a.nu.ˈʁuv/
gift-IND-FUT.HAB
will give (on a recurring basis)
selmazuun
/sɛlɱ.a.ˈzuːn/
gift-IND-PRS.COMPL
have given

Tense

Nactlylvh has three tenses—past, present, and future—which set a temporal reference point for the action being described.

These points of reference are not static. For example, the present may refer to this exact moment in time, or it may encompass a broad swath of time of which the current moment is a part.

Aspect

Timing and duration of an action are specified via aspects, of which there are four.

  • Perfective: complete action occuring within the point of reference
  • Progressive: continuous action throughout the point of reference
  • Habitual: action repeated at intervals throughout the point of reference
  • Completive: action completed prior to the point of reference

Mood

Most verbal moods are formed by replacing the first vowel in the verbal suffix (which defaults to the indicative a).

Replacement Meaning
Indicative -a- Statement of fact, default
Desiderative -e- Desired outcome, polite commands
Metutive -u- Feared outcome, polite negative commands
Imperative -ir- Direct commands
Interrogative -ocu- Questions, uncertainty
Verbal Moods via Replacement

The causative and negative moods are instead formed by suffixes.

Suffix Meaning
Causative -el This verb causes another verb in the sentence
Negative -ach Inverts the verb’s meaning
Verbal Moods via Suffixation

Suffixed moods may be combined with any of the others. If the negative and causative moods are combined by applying both suffixes, the negative always comes last.

Uvluvanuv.
/uv.luv.a.ˈnuv/
grief-water-IND-FUT.PFV
It will rain.
Uvluvenuv.
/uv.luv.ɛ.ˈnuv/
grief-water-DES-FUT.PFV
It will rain (I hope).
Uvluvunuv.
/uv.luv.u.ˈnuv/
grief-water-MET-FUT.PFV
It will rain (I’m afraid).
Lylvhirzun!
/lɪlf.iʁ.ˈzun/
speech-IMP-PRS.PFV
Speak!
Lylvhocunuv namar?
/lɪlf.o̞.ku.ˈnuv ˈnaɱ.aʁ/
speech-INT-FUT.PFV 3.LM-LM.ERG
Will he speak?
Nematu belthabetel namar lylvhabet
/nɛɱ.ˈat.u b̪ɛlθ.a.b̪ɛt.ˈɛl ˈnaɱ.aʁ lɪlf.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
3.LN-LN.ERG-PL permission-IND-PST.PFV-CAUS 3.LM-LM.ERG speech-IND-PST.PFV
They let him speak.
Namar lylvhanuvach.
/ˈnaɱ.aʁ lɪlf.a.nuv.ˈax/
3.LM-LM.ERG speech-IND-FUT.PFV-NEG
He will not speak.
Nematu belthabetelach namar lylvhabet
/nɛɱ.ˈat.u b̪ɛlθ.a.b̪ɛt.ɛl.ˈax ˈnaɱ.aʁ lɪlf.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
3.LN-LN.ERG-PL permission-IND-PST.PFV-CAUS-NEG 3.LM-LM.ERG speech-IND-PST.PFV
They did not let him speak.

Nactlylvh does not use modal verbs like the English can or must. It instead uses combinations of tense, aspect, and mood to communicate the desired meaning. For instance, instead of saying “I can read,” you simply say “I read,” using the present habitual indicative form of read:

Zhemat dlynazudhun zetlylvhyv.
/ˈʒɛɱ.at dlɪn.a.zu.ˈðun zɛk.ˈlɪlf.ɪv/
1.LN-LN.ERG ear-IND-PRS.HAB death-speech-TN.ABS
I (can) read.

The English modal verb should is usually represented by the desiderative mood:

Thenat bachezun.
/ˈθɛn.at b̪ax.ɛ.ˈzun/
2.LN-LN.ERG departure-DES-PRS.PFV
You (should) go.

And must is typically replaced by the imperative:

Namah zetrirzun.
/ˈnam.aχ zɛkʁ.iʁ.ˈzun/
3.LM-LM.ABS death-IMP-PRS.PFV
He (must) die.

Gerunds

Infinitives may function as gerunds. When used as such, they may refer either to general action or specific instances of an action. Gerunds decline by case, inheriting the class of their root noun, and they are stressed according to the rules for nouns—that is, on the penultimate syllable.

Lurzynudh stychazun.
/luʁz.ˈɪn.uð stɪx.a.ˈzun/
lie-INF-DN.ABS stigma-IND-PRS.PFV
Lying is avoided.

Numbers

Nactlylvh uses a duodecimal system (base twelve). This means that while English only uses ten digits (0–9), Nactlylvh uses twelve: 0–9 plus two more, which for convenience will be represented as a and b.

Decimal Digit Nactlylvh Name Duodecimal Digit
0 zyc 0
1 zut 1
2 dal 2
3 seth 3
4 chatr 4
5 ezt 5
6 ars 6
7 enr 7
8 avt 8
9 ashn 9
10 evm a
11 ethn b
12 lhun 10
Numbers 0–12

Nactdrel, like humans, often count on their fingers, of which the have four on each hand (including thumbs). They then add their two ears, which are characterized by having two points each—one long and one short. Nactdrel ears can move independently, allowing a Nactdrel to raise or lower them in order to indicate the (decimal) numbers nine through twelve. An ear lowered counts just the short point; an ear raised counts both points. An ear in its natural, resting position is not counted at all.

Numbers larger than lhun are formed via concatenation.

Decimal Digit Nactlylvh Name Duodecimal Digit
13 lhunzut 11
14 lhundal 12
15 lhunseth 13
16 lhunchatr 14
17 lhunezt 15
18 lhunars 16
19 lhunenr 17
20 lhunavt 18
21 lhunashn 19
22 lhunevm 1a
23 lhunethn 1b
24 dalhun 20
36 sethlhun 30
48 chatlhun 40
Larger Numbers

This method allows numbers up to decimal 143 (ethnlhun-ethn, duodecimal bb). Decimal 144 (duodecimal 100) is formed by compounding zarc (perfection) and lhun, resulting in zarclhun.

God Numbers

In a decimal system, there are ten digits, meaning you can represent ten unique integers before adding a separate digit to the leftmost position (9 > 10, 19 > 20, 999 > 1000 etc.). For the purpose of this discussion, we’ll call these cycles.

In a duodecimal system, you have twelve digits (0–b), resulting in twelve unique integers per cycle.

Nactdrel recognize a set of theoretical integers that exist between every cycle. These integers, called god numbers, have no name and no symbol, and they are skipped over when counting. For convenience, they will be referred to here using the symbol c.

Therefore, in a standard duodecimal system, you would count straight from b to 10. The first god number, c, would appear between these two numbers. The next god number, 1c, would appear between 1b and 20. This continues until you reach bb. At that point, you have a complete cycle of god numbers ranging from c0 to cc before you get to 100.

God numbers are not used in mathematics, but are believed to govern reality; that is, they compose the laws by which mathematics—and all other aspects of physical science—operate. Their “meta” quality puts them beyond the range of mortal tinkering. God numbers have more to do with philosophy and religion than arithmetic.

Fractions

Fractions are formed by suffixing -ash.

English Nactlylvh
half dalash
third sethash
fourth chatrash
fifth eztash
sixth arsash
seventh enrash
eighth avtash
ninth ashnash
tenth evmash
eleventh ethnash
twelfth lhunash
Fractions

Nactlylvh fractions are never used as ordinals like they are in English.

Ordinals

Ordinal forms (first, second, third, etc.) are created by suffixing -ai.

English Nactlylvh
first zutai
second dalai
third sethai
fourth chatrai
fifth eztai
sixth arsai
seventh enrai
eighth avtai
ninth ashnai
tenth evmai
eleventh ethnai
twelfth lhunai
last zetrai
Ordinal Numbers

Note that the ordinal “last” is derived not from a number, but from zetr (death).

Ordinal forms are never used for fractions like they are in English.

Numbers as Nouns

When used as nouns, only the cardinal numbers zero through four and twelve decline by case.

Dalar drelazen syylvnenazhi-za.
/ˈdal.aʁ dʁɛl.a.ˈzɛn sɪːlv.nɛn.ˈa.ʒi za/
two-LM.ERG child-IND-PRS.PROG tree-place-LOC the.LN
Two (boys) are playing in the woods.
Ars drelazen syylvnenazhi-za.
/aʁs dʁɛl.a.ˈzɛn sɪːlv.nɛn.ˈa.ʒi za/
six child-IND-PRS.PROG tree-place-LOC the.LN
Six are playing in the woods.

Numbers can take plural inflections in rare situations, such as referring to all of the threes in a deck of cards.

Clevocuzen thenat sethyvu-vrym?
/klɛv.o̞.ku.ˈzɛn ˈθɛn.at ˈsɛθ.ɪv.u vʁɪɱ/
possession-INT-PRS.PROG 2.LN-LN.ERG three-TN.ABS-PL any.TN-PL
Do you have any threes?

When used as pronouns, numbers take the class of their referent.

Numbers as Counters

When used to count things, as in “five swords,” the number follows the noun without undergoing any inflection.

zebru ezt
/ˈzɛb̪ʁ.u ɛzt/
sword-PL five
five swords

Note that only nouns can take determiners. Articles and demonstratives are never applied to counters.

zebru-zum ezt
/ˈzɛb̪ʁ.u zuɱ ɛzt/
sword-PL the.DN-PL five
the five swords

Compound Words

When concatenating two or more roots to form a new word, one root acts as a base while the others act as modifiers. Modifiers are placed before the base during concatenation.

nactr
/naktʁ/
night (modifier)
lylvh
/lɪlf/
speech (base)
Nactlylvh
/ˈnakt.lɪlf/
Night-Speech

Once the roots are concatenated, the resulting word is modified to adhere to Nactlylvh phonotactics.

Common bases include:

  • -nen: place (e.g., syylvnen, tree-place, forest)
  • -uz: doer (e.g., curuz, something that carries, bearer)
  • -thir: building (e.g., crynthir, royal-building, palace)
  • -zhect: thing (e.g., drelzhect, child-thing, toy)

Certain modifiers and bases can only appear as part of a compound word. Most prominent of these are:

  • t(a)-: life modifier, high, large, positive, etc. (e.g., talhethyn, stand)
  • m(y)-: time modifier, middle, average, neutral, etc. (e.g., mylhethyn, sit)
  • z(u)-: death modifier, low, small, negative, etc. (e.g., zulhethyn, lie)

The parenthasized vowels above are only included if the root begins with a consonant.

Syntax

Word Order

Sentence Order

The default order for sentences is subject-object-verb (SOV). However, Nactlylvh supports free sentence order.

Surprisingly, classical Nactlylvh is more lenient than neo Nactlylvh in this regard. A speaker is likely to garner funny looks if he plays around with sentence order too much in a neo community. This is most likely because other languages have more rigid guidelines on this point.

Phrase Order

Nactlylvh is a head-first language. More precisely:

  1. Noun or verb
  2. Determiners
  3. Adjective-ish things
  4. Subordinate clauses

Phrase order is not quite as flexible as sentence order, but there is still some freedom.

Be aware that while you can arrange multiple subordinate clauses however you want, having more than one modifying the same head can get confusing. Good style dictates that you include only one, and if you need to convey more information, break it out into another sentence.

Emphasis through Order

Free word order allows a great deal of nuance. In Nactlylvh, emphasis is placed on the first and last things mentioned, with the last receiving the most attention.

Note that emphasis is not the only reason to choose a particular arrangement. Personal style is also a factor.

Deletions

Generally, redundant components of a sentence can be removed. This goes for verbs…

Umvrud-zu thenath maruvi chynvazen, lhunlhirud-zu zulhudh-the.
/ˈuɱvʁ.ud zu ˈθɛn.aθ ɱaʁ.ˈu.vi xɪnv.a.ˈzɛn l̥un.ˈl̥iʁ.ud zu ˈzul̥.uð θɛ/
darkness-DN.ERG the.DN 2.LN-LN.ABS physical.matter-GEN essence-IND-PRS.PROG / moon-light-DN.ERG the.DN spirit-DN.ABS 2.LN
The darkness forms your material self, the moonlight your spirit.

…objects…

Lhunlhirud-zu havryv czhurazun, umvrud-zu vhezazun.
/l̥un.ˈl̥iʁ.ud zu zu ˈχavʁ.ɪv kʒuʁ.a.ˈzun ˈuɱvʁ.ud zu fɛz.a.ˈzun/
moon-light-DN.ERG the.DN power-TN.ABS creation-IND-PRS.PFV / darkness-DN.ERG the.DN guide-IND-PRS.PFV
The moonlight generates power, the darkness channels it.

…and subjects:

Zhemat bachabet crynthiravtre-zy set tyrzilh-zi clutabet.
/ˈʒɛɱ.at b̪ax.a.ˈb̪ɛt kʁɪn.θiʁ.ˈavt.ʁɛ zɪ sɛt tɪʁz.il̥ zi klut.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
1.LN-LN.ERG departure-IND-PST.PFV monarch-building-LAT the.TN and queen-LF.ABS the.LF eye-IND-PST.PFV
I went to the palace and saw the queen.

Imperative sentences can omit the subject if the subject is present and being addressed directly, as in English.

Lylvhirzun!
/lɪlf.iʁ.ˈzun/
speech-IMP-PRS.PFV
Speak!

If the command is not being given directly (i.e., third-person subjects), the subject is required.

Namatu lylvhirnuv.
/naɱ.ˈat.u lɪlf.iʁ.ˈnuv/
3.LN-LN.ERG-PL speech-IMP-FUT.PFV
They will speak.

In cases where English requires a dummy subject such as it, Nactlylvh can simply omit the subject entirely.

Uvluvazen.
/uv.luv.a.ˈzɛn/
grief-water-IND-PRS.PROG
It’s raining.

Adjectives

Nactlylvh does not have adjectives or adverbs in the sense to which English speakers are accustomed. Descriptives are instead formed by the nominal case system.

This can require a shift in thinking. In Nactlylvh, there is no way to literally translate “dark night”. Instead, you can say:

nactr umvruvi
/naktʁ uɱvʁ.ˈu.vi/
night darkness-GEN
night of darkness
nactr umvravca
/naktʁ uɱvʁ.ˈav.ka/
night darkness-EQV
night like darkness
nactrudh umvrazuun
/ˈnaktʁ.uð uɱvʁ.a.ˈzuːn/
night-DN.ABS darkness-IND-PRS.COMPL
night has darkened
nactrudh yrsazen umvrulai
/ˈnaktʁ.uð ɪʁs.a.ˈzɛn uɱvʁ.ˈu.lai/
night-DN.ABS abundance-IND-PRS.PROG darkness-INS
night is filled with darkness
nactr umvrulai
/naktʁ uɱvʁ.ˈu.lai/
night darkness-INS
night with darkness

Once you’ve trained your brain in this manner of paraphrase, you’ll find many combinations of verb and case to express any concept. The examples above are just a few possible methods. Some are considered more elegant than others, and some are common enough to receive their own entry in the lexicon. Even though Nactlylvh doesn’t have a formal adjective class, for convenience adjective-ish words will be labeled as such in the lexicon.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions may connect individual words, phrases, or complete sentences. Unless stated otherwise, the order of the connected elements doesn’t matter.

Conjunction English Equivalent Meaning
yl and Elements on either side are treated as a single unit
das except, but not Elements on the right are excluded, creates exceptions to general statements
set and, then Creates chronological sequences or complex sentences
yr and/or One or more of the linked arguments can be true at the same time
elc either-or Only one of the linked arguments can be true
ub if-then if the statement on one side is true, the other is also true
du but, however, if not for, otherwise If the statement on one side is true, the other is false
uvn therefore, so The first statement causes the second
nvu because, as a result of The second statement causes the first
zhra also, too, as well Emphasizes similarity between arguments; the argument being compared against may be omitted
dhu for, to, for the purpose of, in order to The second statement is the purpose or reason for the first
ndhu for, to, for the purpose of, in order to The first statement is the purpose or reason for the second
Conjunctions
Nimil yl zhamar zletabet nactruri-zu.
/ˈniɱ.il ɪl ˈʒaɱ.aʁ zlɛt.a.ˈb̪ɛt naktʁ.ˈu.ʁi zu/
3.LF-LF.ERG and 1.LM-LM.ERG dance-IND-PST.PFV night-PRL the.DN
She and I danced through the night.
Namar nzecrabet zhetathu-tram das zhasnilh-zi.
/ˈnaɱ.aʁ nzɛkʁ.a.ˈb̪ɛt ʒɛt.ˈa.θu tʁaɱ das ˈʒasn.il̥ zi/
3.LM-LM.ERG murder-IND-PST.PFV person-LN.ABS-PL every.LN except princess-LF.ABS the.LF
He killed everyone except the princess.
Namar crynthiryv-zy nlysabet set myrcabet tvhelazhim-zem.
/ˈnaɱ.aʁ kʁɪn.ˈθiʁ.ɪv zɪ nlɪs.a.ˈb̪ɛt sɛt ɱɪʁk.a.ˈb̪ɛt tfɛl.ˈa.ʒiɱ zɛɱ/
3.LM-LM.ERG monarch-building-TN.ABS the.TN destruction-IND-PST.PFV then veil-IND-PST.PFV mountain.LOC-PL the.LN-PL
He destroyed the palace, then hid in the mountains.
Zhimilh zetrubet du thanar zhimilh risabet.
/ˈʒiɱ.il̥ zɛkr.u.ˈb̪ɛt du ˈθan.aʁ ˈʒiɱ.il̥ ʁis.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
1.LF-LF.ABS death-MET-PST.PFV but 2p.LM-LM.ERG 1.LF-LF.ABS rescue-IND-PST.PFV
I fear I would have died, but you saved me.

Subordination

Nactlylvh has no formal process for subordination. Sentences are merely concatenated as below:

Namar tzevdah-za nzecrabet, nymyb zhemathu macvrabet.
/ˈnaɱ.aʁ ˈtzɛvd.aχ za nzɛkʁ.a.ˈb̪ɛt ˈnɪɱ.ɪb̪ ʒɛɱ.ˈa.θu ɱakvɾ.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
3.LM-LM.ERG king-LM.ABS murder-IND-PST.PFV / 3.TN-TN.ERG 1.LN-LN.ABS-PL shock-IND-PST.PFV
That he killed the king was a surprise.

Questions

At their simplest, questions may be formed through intonation alone. This, however, relies heavily on context and understanding between speakers.

Questions may be marked more clearly by using the interrogative verbal mood. The verb is often moved to the front of the sentence to signal the question as early as possible, but this is not required.

Clutocuzuun thenat lelilh-zhe?
/klut.o̞.ku.ˈzuːn ˈθɛn.at ˈlɛl.il̥ ʒɛ/
eye-INT-PRS.COMPL 2.LN-LN.ERG daughter-LF.ABS 1.LN
Have you seen my daughter?

Query pronouns may be used to ask more open questions that prompt answers beyond yes or no.

Clutocubet thenat lelilh-zhe cunenazhi?
/klut.o̞.ku.ˈb̪ɛt ˈθɛn.at ˈlɛl.il̥ ʒɛ ku.nɛn.ˈa.ʒi/
eye-INT-PST.PFV 2.LN-LN.ERG daughter-LF.ABS 1.LN Q-place-LOC
Where did you see my daughter?

Yes & No

When the nouns sav and haz are used to answer a yes/no question, they don’t decline by case. They may be made plural, however, to answer multiple questions at once. For example: Did you buy the book?

Sav.
/sav/
yes
Yes.

Did you read it and write a review?

Hazu.
/ˈχaz.u/
no-PL
No. (to both)

Comparisons

The standard construction for comparative sentences, where x’s quality is being compared against y’s, looks like this:

x dazhyn quality y

X always takes the absolutive case. Quality takes the instrumental case if x’s is equal to or greater than y’s, or the privative case otherwise. Y takes the aversive case unless both are equal, in which case it takes the equative case. The verb dazhyn (“to compare”) will conjugate as appropriate, and it may be replaced with one of its more specific derivatives (tadazhyn, mydazhyn, zudazhyn) depending on how x measures up.

Zulhudh-na tadazhazen umvrulai nactresdre.
/ˈzul̥.uð na ta.daʒ.a.ˈzɛn uɱvʁ.ˈu.lai naktʁ.ˈɛsd.ʁɛ/
soul-DN.ABS 3.LM L-comparison-IND-PRS.PROG darkness-INS night-AVS
His soul is blacker than night.
Radah-nem mydazhazen tazedulai syylvavca.
/ˈʁad.aχ nɛɱ ɱɪ.daʒ.a.ˈzɛn ta.zɛt.ˈu.lai sɪːlv.ˈavk.a/
son-LM.ABS 3p.LN-PL T-comparison-IND-PRS.PROG L-height-INS tree-EQV
Their son is as tall as a tree.

The order of the elements can be changed of course, although care should be taken to avoid confusion.

Comparative sentences don’t necessarily need to include a y to compare against, assuming the y is known or unimportant.

Radah-zha tadazhazen tazedulai.
/ˈʁad.aχ ʒa ta.daʒ.a.ˈzɛn ta.zɛt.ˈu.lai/
son-LM.ABS 1.LM L-comparison-IND-PRS.PROG L-height-INS
My son is taller.

Causatives

There are a couple ways to form causative sentences. The first is with the causative verbal mood.

When two verbs appear in a clause, and one of them is in the causative mood, the causative verb instigates the other. Free word order is slightly restricted; the causative verb must be immediately preceeded by its subject (unless the subject is omitted). Both the “causer” and the “causee” take the ergative case.

Zhamar belthabetel nimil bachabet.
/ˈʒaɱ.aʁ b̪ɛlθ.a.b̪ɛt.ˈɛl ˈniɱ.il b̪ax.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
1.LM-LM.ERG permission-IND-PST.PFV-CAUS 3.LF-LF.ERG departure-IND-PST.PFV
I let her go.

Another way is to use the conjunctions dhu or ndhu. These create (and allow) more complicated sentences, but preserve free word order.

Zhamar nimilh belthabet dhu nimil bachabet.
/ˈʒaɱ.aʁ ˈniɱ.il̥ b̪ɛlθ.a.ˈb̪ɛt ðu ˈniɱ.il b̪ax.a.ˈb̪ɛt/
1.LM-LM.ERG 3.LF-LF.ABS permission-IND-PST.PFV to 3.LF-LF.ERG departure-IND-PST.PFV
I let her go.

Semantics

Kinship Terms

Nactlylvh has direct translations for parent, child, sibling, and spouse, and their gender-specific equivalents. Beyond that, however, the vocabulary is limited, and relies on inflection or phrases.

The first generation each of grandparents and grandchildren are handled by augmenting parent and child, respectively.

English Nactlylvh
grandparent zeesht
grandchild dreel
Grandparents and Grandchildren

After that, ancestor and descendant are combined with ordinal numbers to create great-grandparents and great-grandchildren. Note that the first of each is just parent and child, and the second is grandparent and grandchild, so the ordinals actually start with third.

English Nactlylvh
great-grandparent duthzhet sethai (third ancestor)
great-great-grandparent duthzhet chatrai (fourth ancestor)
great-grandchild narzhet sethai (third descendent)
great-great-grandchild narzhet chatrai (fourth descendent)
Great-Grandparents and Great-Grandchildren

Uncle, aunt, nephew, and niece relationships use hyphenated parent and sibling genetives. The hyphen removes ambiguity when saying “my uncle”, which might otherwise result in a confusing double genetive. Note that the non-genetive word in each example should inflect by case as appropriate.

English Nactlylvh
uncle vredh-zeshtuvi (parent’s brother)
aunt nys-zeshtuvi (parent’s sister)
nephew rad-nysuvi (sibling’s son)
niece lel-nysuvi (sibling’s daughter)
Uncles, Aunts, Nephews, and Nieces

Inlaws are formed similarly:

English Nactlylvh
father-in-law zurdh-cenzuvi (spouse’s father)
mother-in-law zelt-cenzuvi (spouse’s mother)
son-in-law cval-dreluvi (child’s husband)
daughter-in-law darl-dreluvi (child’s wife)
Inlaws

Greetings & Partings

The most basic openers and closers in Nactlylvh simply repurpose the vocative forms of let (meeting) and tyrn (parting). More complex forms exist. For greetings:

Zhemat thenath clutazun.
/ˈʒɛɱ.at ˈθɛn.aθ klut.a.ˈzun/
1.LN-LN.ERG 2.LN-LN.ABS eye-IND-PRS.PFV
I see you.

And for partings:

Du Zeltul rivanuv.
/du ˈzɛlt.ul ʁiv.a.ˈnuv/
unless Mother-DF.ERG harvest-IND-FUT.PFV
Unless Mother reaps.

This can be shortened to du Zeltul (“unless Mother”).

For more formal or heartfelt partings, you may use:

Thenanai nactrudhu imvrenur set dhrymudhu lhirenur set lhunudh-zu zynthenur.
/θɛn.ˈa.nai naktʁ.ˈuð.u iɱvʁ.ɛ.ˈnuʁ sɛt ðʁɪɱ.ˈuð.u l̥iʁ.ɛ.ˈnuʁ sɛt ˈl̥un.uð zu zɪnθ.ɛ.ˈnuʁ/
2.LN-ANT night-DN.ABS-PL clarity-DES-FUT.PROG and star-DN.ABS-PL light-DES-FUT.PROG and moon-DN.ABS the.DN fullness-DES-FUT.PROG
May the nights be clear, the stars bright, and the moon full above you.

A shorter version may be used instead by omitting elements (the night, the stars, or the moon).

Personal Names

Classical Nactdrel names are often, though not always, derived from vocative nouns by applying a gender-based suffix.

  • Male: -ar, -im
  • Female: -iel, -res

A name may also be formed by reassigning a noun’s class to that of the bearer. And of course, a word may be appropriated unmodified for use as a name.

It is not uncommon for a name to be completely unique. A common word may be modified to suit the namer’s taste, or the name may be invented without any etymology at all. The only guideline for invented names in classical Nactlylvh is that it must conform to the language’s phonological rules.

Neo Nactlylvh names are far more varied, since they often adopt names and terms from other languages, and there is no rule against violating Nactlylvh’s phonology.

A Nactdrel is typically named twice during its life, once at birth (birth name) and again to mark a defining accomplishment (accolade). Birth names may be arbitrary, or they may carry special significance. Accolades always signify the accomplishment for which they are given.

If a Nactdrel’s birth name and accolade are used together, the birth name comes first, followed immediately by the accolade.

Some notable examples:

  • Vreith Nactzvhiir (Hope Nightstorm)
  • Naactres Nactyyrz (Lady of Pure Night, High Queen of the Night)
  • Nezachim (Evil Prince)
  • Zetres (Lady of Death)

Geographic Landmarks

In Nactlylvh, things like mountains and rivers may be named by case nouns (remember that most proper nouns don’t take articles).

Tvhelu Zulhuvim
/ˈtfɛl.u zul̥.ˈu.viɱ/
mountain-PL ghost-GEN-PL
the Ghost Mountains

Countries, cities, and towns on the other hand are usually named by compounding.

Dreldhyn
/ˈdʁɛl.ðɪn/
child-land
Land of the Children
Eboth
/ˈɛb̪.o̞θ/
new.moon-home
Home of the New Moon

Time

Flow

In Nactdrel culture, time flows downward from life to death. Therefore, rather than moving backward or forward in time, you move up or down. Up is the past, and down is the future.

Lunar Divisions

It should come as no surprise that “Night-Children” who communicate in “Night-Speech” use a lunar calendar. The moon is an important religious symbol to the Nactdrel. It represents, among other things, the eye of Zetres, their goddess. Therefore, the major divisions of time revolve around the metaphor of an eye or face.

Division Nactlylvh English
day bven glance
month lhas blink
year naudh nod
Lunar Divisions of Time

The exact duration of a measurement varies from world to world, but on the Nactdrel’s home planet of Yrys, there are (roughly):

  • 26 hours in a lunar day
  • 39 days in a lunar month
  • 13 months in a lunar year

Nactdrel do not acknowledge a “week” unit.

Seasons

In English, we’re accustomed to seasons being described by a metaphor of life and death (e.g., summer = life, winter = death). This metaphor is used by the Nactdrel as well, except they tie it to the power of their goddess of death.

Season Nactlylvh English
Spring Ven-Nu Her Waning
Summer Nadr-Nu Her Nadir
Autumn Vecs-Nu Her Waxing
Winter Zyth-Nu Her Zenith
Seasons

Colors

English has six “main” colors into which we sort an infinite number of hues: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple. Nactlylvh sorts colors similarly, and has direct translations for our main English colors. However, the specifics of how colors are sorted are slightly different.

We generally think of cyan as the dividing line between green and blue, but a Nactdrel would draw that line closer to green. While we usually sort teal, aquamarine, and turquoise in the “green” bucket, a Nactdrel instead lumps them together under “blue”.

This shift is fairly consistent around the color wheel. Basically, you can think of the Nactdrel color wheel as being rotated several degrees negatively to our own.

Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple
English
Nactlylvh
Colors

Military Ranks

Nactdrel military forces are organized according to the metaphor of a torso. The smallest division is called a finger, and from there the ranks ascend through the hand, the arm, and the chest.

Rank Commands a… Division consists of…
vulruz - -
lhunzenr moct 12 vulruzu
chatzenr chatr 2–4 moctu (24–48 vulruzu)
durzenr dur 2–4 chatru (48–192 vulruzu)
delvzenr delv 2–4 duru (96–768 vulruzu)
zarczenr cuthr 2+ delvu (192+ vulruzu)
Military Ranks

As the numbers above indicate, Nactdrel typically maintain small armies. However, Nactdrel are exceptionally skilled and can augment their abilities with magic. A small Nactdrel force can be just as formidable as another army several times its size.

Idioms

Zeltul uvrazen.
/ˈzɛlt.ul uvʁ.a.ˈzɛn/
Mother-DF.ERG grief-INDPRS.PROG
Mother grieves.
It’s raining.

Mother refers to the Nactdrel goddess Zetres. The raindrops represent her tears.

Pragmatics

Pragmatic Markers

English contains a wide array of utterances that help to guide the flow of conversation, for example: uh, oh, well, OK, right?, hm, etc.

These are almost entirely absent in classical Nactlylvh. Nactdrel speech is characteristically uncluttered, and aided by a deep racial understanding even between strangers.

Neo Nactlylvh, spoken largely by other races, has adopted several markers.

Marker English Equivalents Meaning
y uh, um, hm expresses uncertainty, signals a moment of thought
sa right, alright, yeah, OK expresses agreement or pleasure
cha ugh, yeah right, puh, uh-uh, yuck, ew expresses disagreement or distaste
o and you?, well?, right?, yeah? prompts a response
ue ah, oh, uh-huh expresses acknowledgement, prompts continuation
mvu so yeah, there it is signals completion of a thought, surrenders control of conversation
reu so, now, by the way changes the subject, introduces a long turn
Pragmatic Markers
Namah clystazen…y…Vreith.
/ˈnaɱ.aχ klɪst.a.ˈzɛn ɪ vʁɛiθ/
3.LM-LM.ABS name-IND-PRS.PROG uh Vreith
His name is…uh…Vreith.
Zhemat cryvtudh-zu zcurazen, o?
/ˈʒɛɱ.at ˈkʁɪvt.uð zu zkuʁ.a.ˈzɛn o̞/
1.LN-LN.ERG cold.DN.ABS the.DN preference-IND-PRS.PROG what.about.you
I like the cold. You?
Zletudh-zu zetrabet, mvu.
/ˈzlɛt.uð zu zɛkʁ.a.b̪ɛt ɱvu/
battle-DN.ABS the.DN death-IND-PST.PFV the.end
The battle ended, and that was that.

Politeness

To a Nactdrel, politeness is tied closely with honesty. Amusingly, this often makes them appear rude in other cultures where flattery is preferred to bluntness.

There is also a tendency toward reticence; as a rule, Nactdrel will say no more than what must be said. This is related to politeness (not wanting to waste the listener’s time), but it also touches on several other facets of Nactdrel culture, such as their racial melancholia and deep understanding of each other.

Tone of voice plays a large role in Nactdrel manners. As has been mentioned before, Nactlylvh voicing and stress are subtle. As a rule, loud, strongly emphasized speech is a sign of disrespect. This is relative; the threshold between politeness and rudeness is lowest amongst Nactdrel, who are naturally soft-spoken, and higher amongst the generally louder neo Nactlylvh speakers.

Nactlylvh has no equivalent to the English please and thank you. The closest you can get to making a polite request is to substitute the strong imperative mood with the weaker desiderative (or occasionally the metutive) while speaking in a slightly higher, softer voice with a rising intonation. Grattitude is typically expressed through actions and demeanor rather than words (although chmersyn can be translated as to thank, it is almost never used directly as it is in English).

Registers

Nactlylvh has several registers organized by degree of formality.

The familiar register is used between friends. It is standard Nactlylvh, but with a lot of room for sloppy grammar. Most notably, this is the only level where given names are regularly used.

The formal register is used when speaking to one whose authority, power, or honor are lower than or equal to your own, but with whom you are not closely acquainted. It is very similar to the familiar level, except proper grammar is more closely observed, and accolades are preferred over given names. The unshortened forms of the complex greetings and partings are preferred.

The honorific register is used when speaking to someone above you in authority, power, or honor. Proper grammar is strictly observed, and given names are never used. The imperative mood is completely eschewed in favor of either the desiderative or metutive. The honorific second-person pronoun ve replaces the standard the. In this level, the default SOV sentence order is more common, only being altered for particular emphasis.

The honorific register bleeds into the others with regard to pronouns. The familiar and formal registers still use the honorific pronouns when speaking about a third party whose status warrants it.

Note that the registers are chosen based on the speaker’s relationship to the listener. In a conversation between a peasant and a king, the peasant would speak in the honorific register, while the king would use the formal register. When speaking to a group of mixed or unknown status, use the highest appropriate register.

The familiar register can sometimes override the honorific register. If the king and peasant were good friends, either of them might use the familiar register, although manners would dictate that the king initiate its use.

The divine register is used exclusively for religious contexts, especially public prayers. It is identical to the honorific register, except no reference to the listener (i.e., the deity) is ever spoken, be it a name, title, or pronoun.

Sample Passages

Let Dreluvi

The “Child’s Welcome” was first spoken by Naactres Nactyyrz to Vreith Nactzvhiir. It has since become a tradition to recite this passage to all newborn Nactdrel. Note in the last line how free word order is used to create a poetic symmetry, emphasizing and linking the verbs mourn and heal.

Dyvyv methirzun drelat: thenath zutazenach.
/ˈdɪv.ɪv ɱɛθ.iʁ.ˈzun ˈdʁɛl.at ˈθɛn.aθ zutʁ.a.zɛn.ˈax/
this.TN-TN.ABS knowledge-IMP-PRS.PFV child-LN.ERG / 2.LN-LN.ABS loneliness-IND-PRS.PROG-NEG
Know this, child: you are not alone.
Uvrud thenath nauthazen; nomud nauthazen zhemathu-tram uvn zhemathu azrabet Zeltul-zhem, numul uvrazen zetrashai.
/ˈuvʁ.ud ˈθɛn.aθ nɒθ.a.ˈzɛn ˈno̞ɱ.ud nɒθ.a.ˈzɛn ʒɛɱ.ˈaθ.u tʁaɱ uvn ʒɛɱ.ˈaθ.u azʁ.a.ˈb̪ɛt ˈzɛlt.ul ʒɛɱ ˈnuɱ.ul uvʁ.a.ˈzɛn zɛkr.ˈa.ʃai/
grief-DN.ERG 2.LN-LN.ABS consumption-IND-PRS.PROG / 3.DN-DN.ERG consumption-IND-PRS.PROG 1.LN-PL-LN.ABS-PL all.LN because 1.LN-PL-LN.ABS-PL life-IND-PST.PFV Mother-DF.ERG 1.LN-PL / 3.DF-DF.ERG grief-IND-PRS.PROG death-PRIV
Grief consumes you; it consumes us all, for we are children of our mother, who grieves without end.
Uvrazun zhematu yldulai yl yldulai zhemathu havnazun.
/uvʁ.a.ˈzun ʒɛɱ.ˈat.u ɪld.ˈu.lai ɪl ɪld.ˈu.lai ʒɛɱ.ˈaθ.u χavn.a.ˈzun/
grief-IND-PRS.PFV 1.LN-LN.ERG-PL connection-INS and connection-INS 1.LN-LN.ABS-PL healing-IND-PRS.PFV
We mourn together, and together we heal.

Hech Nezachimuvi

Tradition asserts that when the slain god Nezachim had recovered enough power to once again influence the world, certain individuals of a particularly sensative nature “heard” a terrible voice. Their reports coalesced into the “Curse of Nezachim”, the words spoken by the evil prince as he began his war against all living things.

Note the use of the time-neuter pronouns when Nezachim addresses both Father and Mother together. This is because Nezachim’s father, being a god of life, belongs to the life-masculine class, while his mother, the Nactdrel goddess of death, belongs to the death-feminine. Since the audience is a group of mixed class in both domain and gender, you takes the vague time-neuter class.

Also note the class change that occurs in the fifth line: radar is life-masculine, but the related pronoun naumur is death-masculine. The change from life to death is because the first clause is in the past tense, when Nezachim was still alive; the second clause is future tense, after Nezachim was “cast down”.

Curuzyvu-zym mazuvi-zhau mutirnuv zvhirudhu-zum Zvhirieluvi, luvazrudhu-zum Luvieluvi azruzyvu-zym chazruvi-zhau.
/kuʁ.uz.ˈɪv.u zɪɱ ɱaz.ˈu.vi ʒɒ ɱut.iʁ.ˈnuv zfiʁ.ˈuð.u zuɱ zfiʁ.iɛl.ˈu.vi luv.azʁ.ˈuð.u zuɱ luv.iɛl.ˈu.vi azʁ.uz.ˈɪv.u zɪɱ xazʁ.ˈu.vi ʒɒ/
burden-doer-TN.ABS-PL the.TN-PL sickness-GEN 1.DM change-IMP-FUT.PFV air-DN.ABS-PL the.DN-PL Zvhiriel-GEN / water-birth-DN.ABS-PL the.DN-PL Luviel-GEN birth-doer-TN.ABS-PL the.TN-PL venom-GEN 1.DM
Make Zfiriel’s currents the bearer of my plague, Luviel’s springs the source of my venom.
Schashatu-zam Verushimuvi nauthanuv vrytath-nem set Raicalimat racanuv bemathu-nem.
/sxaʃ.ˈat.u zaɱ vɛʁ.uʃ.iɱ.ˈu.vi nɒθ.a.ˈnuv ˈvʁɪt.aθ nɛɱ sɛt ʁaik.al.ˈiɱ.at ʁak.a.ˈnuv b̪ɛɱ.ˈaθ.u nɛɱ/
fire-LN.ERG-PL the.LN-PL Verushim-GEN consumption-IND-FUT.PFV flesh-LN.ABS 3.LN-PL and Raicalim earth-IND-FUT.PFV bone-LN.ABS-PL 3.LN-PL
Verushim’s flames shall devour their flesh, and Raicalim shall bury their bones.
Vhlurudhu-nem dlynirzun Zurdhar darthashai!
/fluʁ.ˈuð.u nɛɱ dlɪn.iʁ.ˈzun ˈzuʁð.aʁ daʁθ.ˈa.ʃai/
cry-DN.ABS-PL 3.LN-PL ear-IMP-PRS.PFV Father-LN.ERG compassion-PRIV
Hear their cries, loveless Father!
Zeltul nvychuzhai clutirzun, thunul nymyv cetabet nemesdrem!
/ˈzɛlt.ul nvɪx.ˈu.ʒai klut.iʁ.ˈzun ˈθun.ul ˈnɪɱ.ɪv kɛt.a.ˈb̪ɛt nɛɱ.ˈɛesd.ʁɛɱ/
Mother-DF.ERG treachery-CAUS eye-IMP-PRS.PFV / 2.DF-DF.ERG 3.TN-TN.ABS action-IND-PST.PFV 3.LN-PRIV-PL
Treacherous Mother, see to what thou hast subjected them!
Thynybu radah-thym zutai nlysabet uvn naumur revnath-za dreluvim-thym chyvtanuv shynavtre zetrashai.
/θɪn.ˈɪb̪.u ˈʁad.aχ θɪɱ ˈzutʁ.ai nlɪs.a.ˈb̪ɛt uvn ˈnɒɱ.uʁ ˈɾɛvn.aθ za dʁɛl.ˈu.viɱ θɪɱ xɪvt.a.ˈnuv ʃɪn.ˈavt.ʁɛ zɛkr.ˈa.ʃai/
2.TN-TN.ERG-PL son-LM.ABS 2.TN-PL loneliness-ORD destruction-IND-PST.PFV / so 3.DM-DM.ERG remainder-LN.ABS the.LN child-GEN-PL 2.TN-PL drag-IND-FUT.PFV pain-LAT death-PRIV
Thou casteth down thy firstborn; now he shall drag the rest of thy children into eternal anguish.
Vyscrathu-nem drelanur dreludu-zhau, curnathu-nem hedhranur dreludu-zhau.
/vɪscʁ.ˈaθ.u nɛɱ dɾɛl.a.ˈnuʁ dʁɛl.ˈud.u ʒɒ kuʁn.ˈaθ.u nɛɱ χɛðʁ.a.ˈnuʁ dʁɛl.ˈud.u ʒɒ/
entrail-LN.ABS-PL 3.LN-PL child-IND-FUT.PROG child-DN.ERG-PL 1.DM / skin-LN.ABS-PL 3.LN-PL cloak-IND-FUT.PROG child-DN.ERG-PL 1.DM
Their entrails shall be the playthings of my children, their skin my offspring’s cloaks.
Set zulhudhu-nem…zulhudhu-nem zhaumur rezanuv, drethzulhudh-zum umvrabet, nomudu vescanuv thynesdrem zetrurzi zhetuvim-tram.
/sɛt zul̥.ˈuð.u nɛɱ zul̥.ˈuð.u nɛɱ ˈʒɒɱ.uʁ ʁɛz.a.ˈnuv dʁɛθ.ˈzul̥.uð zuɱ uɱvʁ.a.ˈb̪ɛt no̞ɱ.ˈud.u vɛsk.a.ˈnuv θɪn.ˈɛsd.ʁɛɱ zɛkʁ.ˈuʁ.zi ʒɛt.ˈu.viɱ tʁaɱ/
and soul-DN.ABS-PL 3.LN-PL / soul-DN.ABS-PL 3.LN-PL 1.DM-DM.ERG victory-IND-FUT.PFV / horror-ghost-DN.ABS the.DN-PL darkness-IND-PST.PFV / 3.DN-DN.ERG-PL arrival-IND-FUT.PFV 2.TN-AVS-PL death-POST person-GEN-PL every.LN-PL
And their souls…their souls shall be my trophies, the blackened ghosts that come for thee when everyone else is dead.

Lexicon

This lexicon is organized alphabetically according to English conventions. Although Nactlylvh treats digraphs like ch and oe as single letters, they are sorted below as if they were two separate letters, as in English (e.g., orb comes after oedr).

A

ach
/ax/
noun, DN
farthest point, apogee
adhl
/aðl/
noun, LN
island
ars
/aʁs/
number
six
arsai
/ˈaʁs.ai/
noun, adjective
sixth (ordinal)
arsash
/ˈaʁs.aʃ/
noun
sixth (fraction)
ashn
/aʃn/
number
nine
ashnai
/ˈaʃn.ai/
noun, adjective
ninth (ordinal)
ashnash
/ˈaʃn.aʃ/
noun
ninth (fraction)
ast
/ast/
noun, DN
punishment, penalty
astubai
/ast.ˈu.b̪ai/
adjective
punitive
astyn
/ˈast.ɪn/
verb
punish, penalize
asv
/ˈasv/
noun, DN
breathing action
asvlylvh
/ˈasv.lɪlf/
noun, DN
whisper
asvlylvhulai
/asv.lɪlf.ˈu.lai/
adjective
whispered
asvlylvhuzhai
/asv.lɪlf.ˈu.ʒai/
adjective
whispering
asvlylvhyn
verb
whisper
asvyn
verb
breathe
ath
noun, DN
strangeness, unfamiliarity, unknown
athuvi
adjective
strange, unfamiliar, unknown
athyn
verb
make or become strange or unknown
avt
number
eight
avtai
noun, adjective
eighth (ordinal)
avtash
noun
eighth (fraction)
azh
noun, TN
angelic spirit
azhriv
noun, DN
harvesting/summoning angel, angel of death
azr
noun, LN
life, beginning, start, origin, source
Azrim
noun, LM
the Nactdrel god of life
azrulai
adjective
alive
azruz
noun, TN
originator, catalyst, something or someone that starts something
azruzhai
adjective
life-giving
azryn
verb
give or come to life, begin, start, give birth, be born

B

bach
noun, DN
departure, exit
bachyn
verb
go, leave, depart, exit
bact
noun, TN
bag, sack, pocket, pouch
bactyn
verb
place in a bag or pouch
bash
noun, LN
orange color
bashulai
adjective
orange
bashyn
verb
make or become orange
bathr
noun, LN
preparation, readiness
bathrulai
adjective
prepared, ready
bathryn
verb
prepare, make ready
becht
noun, TN
payment, exchange, trade, purchase, sale
bechtnen
noun, TN
store, shop, market
bechtyn
verb
pay, exchange, trade, buy, purchase, sell
belth
noun, LN
permission, allowance
belthulai
adjective
permitted, allowed
belthuzhai
adjective
permissive
belthyn
verb
permit, allow
bem
noun, LN
bone
bemulai
adjective
bony
ben
noun, DN
wildness, volatility, unpredictability
benulai
adjective
wild, volatile, unpredictable, untrustworthy
benyn
verb
behave wildly, erratically, or unreliably
betr
noun, TN
touch, physical contact
betrulai
adjective
touching
betryn
verb
touch, feel (physical matter)
bled
noun, TN
calling, summons
bledulai
adjective
called, summoned
bledyn
verb
call, summon
blet
noun, DN
prison, dungeon, jail, captivity
bletulai
adjective
imprisoned, captive
bletuz
noun, LN
captor, jailer
bletyn
adjective
imprison, hold captive
brecr
noun, DN
seizure, claim
brecryn
verb
take, claim, seize, grab
brich
noun, LN
closest point, perigee
brum
noun, TN
request, plea, prayer
brun
noun, DN
purple color
brunulai
adjective
purple
brunyn
verb
make or become purple
brumyn
verb
request, plead, pray, beg
brush
noun, LN
embrace, hug, hold
brushyn
verb
embrace, hug, hold
burc
noun, LN
pig, boar, hog, pork
burz
noun, LN
strength
burzulai
adjective
strong
burzuzhai
adjective
bolstering, strengthening, reinforcing
burzyn
verb
strengthen, bolster, reinforce
buvr
noun, LN
doorway, opening
buvrulai
adjective
open, ajar
buvryn
verb
open
bvard
noun, TN
tower
bven
noun, TN
glance, calendar day
bvenyn
verb
glance
bvir
noun, LN
redirection, parry, block, misdirection
bvirt
noun, TN
return
bvirtyn
verb
return, come or go back
bviryn
verb
redirect, parry, block, mislead
bvozm
noun, TN
importance, significance
bvozmulai
adjective
important, significant
byrn
noun, DN
loss, something missing
byrnulai
adjective
lost, misplaced, missing
byrnyn
verb
lose, misplace
bzhur
noun, LN
blessing
bzhurulai
adjective
blessed
bzhuryn
verb
bless

C

cadhr
noun, TN
promise, oath, vow, commitment
cadhryn
verb
promise, swear an oath, make a vow or commitment
cdhal
noun, DN
disturbance, annoyance
cdhalulai
adjective
disturbed, annoyed, bothered, upset
cdhaluzhai
adjective
disturbing, annoying, upseting
cdhalyn
verb
disturb, annoy, bother, upset
cel
noun, TN
romance
celulai
adjective
in love
celuzhai
adjective
romantic, seductive, alluring
celyn
verb
love, woo, seduce
cenz
noun, LN
spouse
cenzulai
adjective
married, wedded, marital
cenzyn
verb
marry, wed
cet
noun, TN
action, verb
cetulai
adjective
active
cetyn
verb
do, act
cha
interjection
ugh, yeah right, phooey, puh, uh-uh, ew
chantr
noun, TN
magic, sorcery, enchantment
chantrulai
adjective
magical, enchanted
chantruz
noun, LN
sorcerer, wizard, or magician
chantruzhai
adjective
magical, enchanting
chantryn
verb
cast or use magic, enchant
chatr
noun, number, LN
hand, quartet, four, military division consisting of 2–4 moctu
chatrai
noun, adjective
fourth (ordinal)
chatrash
noun
quarter, fourth (fraction)
chatzenr
noun, DN
military rank in command a chatr
chauth
noun, DN
damage, breakage
chauthulai
adjective
damaged, broken
chauthuzhai
adjective
damaging, reckless
chauthyn
verb
damage, break
chazr
noun, DN
poison, venom, toxin
chazrulai
adjective
poisoned
chazruzhai
adjective
poisonous, venomous, toxic
chazryn
verb
poison
chilh
noun, LN
yellow color
chilhulai
adjective
yellow
chilhyn
verb
make or become yellow
chmers
noun, TN
grattitude, thanksgiving, appreciation
chmersulai
adjective
grateful, thankful, appreciative
chmersuzhai
adjective
appreciated
chmersyn
verb
thank, appreciate
chondr
noun, TN
answer, reply
chondryn
verb
answer, reply
chor
noun, TN
job, career, role, occupation
chorulai
adjective
employed, in possession of a job or role
choryn
verb
perform a job, fulfill a role
chrez
noun, LN
resurrection, wakefulness, awakening
chrezulai
adjective
resurrected, awake
chrezuzhai
adjective
resurrecting, awakening
chrezyn
verb
resurrect, wake
chur
noun, LN
white color
churulai
adjective
white
churyn
verb
whiten
chus
noun, DN
chaos, randomness, luck (good or bad)
chusulai
adjective
chaotic, random, lucky (good or bad)
chyb
noun, LN
moon more than half full, a convex arc or angle, right-hand side, dominant side (right for right handers)
chybazhi
adjective
on the right or dominant side
chybulai
adjective
more than half full, convex, right-handed
chynv
noun, TN
essence, composition, materials that make up a thing
chynvyn
verb
compose or make up, consist
chyvn
noun, LN
trust, faith
chyvnulai
adjective
trusting, faithful
chyvnuzhai
adjective
trustworthy
chyvnyn
verb
trust, have faith, believe
chyvt
noun, TN
dragging motion
chyvtulai
adjective
dragged
chyvtyn
verb
drag
cizr
noun, LN
a large, white, serpentine, fox-like beast with wide feathered wings
clev
noun, TN
possession, property, ownership
clevuvi
adjective
endowed with possessions
clevyn
verb
have, possess, own
clur
noun, TN
room, chamber
clut
noun, LN
eye, sense of sight
clutulai
adjective
watchful, observant, visible, viewable
clutyn
verb
watch, view, see, look, observe
clymv
noun, LN
glow of vitality, the color and light of living skin, color that seems alive
clymvulai
adjective
glowing (of color), vivacious (of color)
clymvyn
verb
glow with color or life
clyst
noun, TN
name, identity
clystulai
adjective
identifiable
clystuzhai
adjective
identifying
clystyn
verb
name, identify, call
clyvht
noun, DN
subjugation, defeat
clyvhtulai
adjective
subjugated, overpowered, defeated
clyvhtuzhai
adjective
subjugating, overpowering, defeating
clyvhtyn
verb
subjugate, overpower, defeat
crast
noun, DN
closure, lock, seal
crastulai
adjective
closed, locked, sealed
crastyn
verb
close, lock, seal
crev
noun, DN
unease, creepiness
crevulai
adjective
uneasy, nervous, creeped out
crevuzhai
adjective
creepy
crevyn
verb
creep out
crid
noun, LN
animal
criduvi
adjective
animalistic
crur
noun, DN
belief, something held as true
cruryn
noun
believe something to be true
crus
noun, DN
moon less than half full, concave arc or angle, left (direction), non-dominant side (left for right-handers)
crusazhi
adjective
on the left or non-dominant side
crusulai
adjective
less than half full, concave, left-handed
crut
noun, DN
mystery, puzzle, search
crutuzhai
adjective
mysterious, puzzling
crutyn
verb
solve, search, find
cryn
noun, LN
monarch, royalty, crown
cryndhom
noun, TN
monarchy, kingdom (referring to the system of government)
cryndhyn
noun, TN
kingdom (referring to the country itself)
crynscel
noun, TN
empire
crynsceluvi
adjective
imperial
crynthir
noun, TN
palace
crynulai
adjective
royal (people)
crynuvi
adjective
royal (things)
crynyn
verb
reign, rule
cryvt
noun, DN
cold
cryvtasv
noun, DN
fog created by breathing in cold air
cryvtasvyn
noun
create fog in cold weather by breathing
cryvtulai
adjective
feels cold (e.g., “I am cold”)
cryvtuzhai
adjective
causes cold (e.g., “the weather is cold”)
cryvtyn
verb
make or become cold
cryzt
noun, LN
heart, core
cumort
query
when
cunen
query
where
cur
noun, TN
something that is held or carried, burden, load
curn
noun, LN
skin
curulai
adjective
held, carried, born
curuz
noun, TN
carrier, holder, bearer
curvn
noun, TN
wall, barrier
curvnyn
verb
block, barricade
curyn
verb
hold, carry, bear
cuthr
noun, DN
army, military
cuthrulai
adjective
military, martial (people)
cuthruvi
adjective
military, martial (things)
cuvhez
query
how
cuvuvn
query
why
cuzhet
query
who, whom, whose
cvab
noun, LN
claw, talon, fingernail, toenail
cvabyn
verb
scratch
cval
noun, LM
husband
cvan
noun, LN
companion, company, party
cvanulai
adjective
accompanied
cvanuzhai
adjective
accompanying
cvanyn
verb
accompany
cvurzh
noun, TN
angle, corner, bend
cvurzhulai
adjective
angled, bent
cvurzhyn
verb
angle, bend
cyrth
noun, DN
trap
cyrthulai
adjective
trapped, captured, caught
cyrthyn
verb
trap, capture, catch
czhur
noun, LN
creation, craft
czhuruvi
adjective
created, crafted
czhuruzhai
adjective
creative, crafty
czhuryn
verb
create, craft, make

D

dal
noun, number, TN
pair, duo, couple, two
dalai
noun, adjective
second
dalash
noun
half
dalyn
verb
double
dant
noun, TN
green color
dantulai
adjective
green
dantyn
verb
make or become green
darc
noun, TN
repetition, reflection, symmetry
darculai
adjective
repetetive, symmetrical
darcuzhai
adjective
reflective
darcyn
verb
repeat, reflect
darl
noun, LF
wife
darth
noun, TN
altruistic love, compassion
darthulai
adjective
loved, cared for
darthuz
noun, LN
friend
darthuzhai
adjective
loving, caring, compassionate
darthuzuzhai
adjective
friendly
darthuzyn
verb
befriend
darthyn
verb
love, care for, have compassion for
das
conjunction
exclusive but
dazh
noun, TN
comparison or contrast
dazhulai
adjective
comparable or contrasting
dazhuzhai
adjective
judgmental
dazhyn
verb
compare or contrast, judge
delv
noun, LN
chest, torso, military division consisting of 2–4 duru
delvzenr
noun, DN
military rank in command of a delv
demr
noun, TN
question, request, inquiry
demrulai
adjective
inquisitive, curious
demryn
verb
ask, request, inquire, question
detl
noun, LN
ear, sense of hearing
detlulai
adjective
has good sense of hearing, listening
detlyn
adjective
hear, listen
dez
noun, LN
amazement, awe
dezulai
adjective
amazed, awed
dezuzhai
adjective
amazing, awe-inspiring, remarkable
dezyn
verb
amaze, awe
dhach
noun, DN
theft, robbery
dhachruz
noun, LN
thief, robber, bandit, burgler
dhachuvi
adjective
stolen
dhachuzhai
adjective
thieving
dhachyn
verb
steal, rob
dhav
noun, LM
man
dhavuvi
adjective
manly, masculine
dhom
noun, TN
government
dhomscel
noun, TN
political alliance
dhomscelulai
adjective
allied
dhomsceluz
noun, TN
ally
dhomscelyn
verb
ally
dhomulai
adjective
governed
dhomuvi
adjective
governmental
dhomuzhai
adjective
governing
dhomyn
verb
govern
dhrach
noun, LN
enormous reptiles native to arctic regions
dhracv
noun, DN
terror
dhracvulai
adjective
terrified
dhracvuzhai
adjective
terrifying
dhracvyn
verb
terrify
dhral
noun, LN
follower, supporter, asset, servant, minion, pawn
dhralulai
adjective
followed, supported
dhraluzhai
verb
supportive
dhralyn
verb
follow, support
dhravn
noun, DN
honor, respect
dhravnulai
adjective
honored, respected
dhravnuzhai
adjective
honorable, respectable
dhravnyn
verb
honor, respect
dhrym
noun, DN
star, jewel, gem
dhrymlhir
noun
starlight
dhrymulai
adjective
starry
dhryzn
noun, DN
frigid or freezing cold
Dhryzndhyn
noun, TN
country name, “frozen-land”
dhryznulai
adjective
feels frigid or freezing (e.g., “I am freezing”)
dhryznuzhai
adjective
causes frigidness or freezing (e.g., “the weather is freezing”)
dhryznyn
verb
make or become frigid
dhu
conjunction
to, for, in order to, for the purpose of
dhul
noun, TN
machine, mechanism, device
dhululai
adjective
mechanical
dhuluz
noun, LN
mechanic, engineer
dhur
noun, LN
rock, stone
dhurn
noun, DN
north (i.e., “the north”)
dhurulai
adjective
rocky, stony
dhustr
noun, TN
justice, fairness
dhustrulai
adjective
just, fair
dhyn
noun, TN
land, country
dibr
noun, DN
weakness
dibrulai
adjective
weak
dibruzhai
adjective
weakening, debilitating
dibryn
verb
weaken
dlev
noun, DN
danger
dlevulai
adjective
endangered
dlevuzhai
adjective
dangerous, offensive
dlevyn
verb
endanger
dlir
noun, TN
weather, climate
dlyn
noun, LN
sound, noise
dlynuzhai
adjective
audible, noisy
dlynyn
verb
make noise
dreel
noun, LN
grandchild
drel
noun, LN
child
drelavca
adjective
childish, playful
Dreldhyn
noun, TN
country name, “child-land”
drelyn
verb
play
drelzhect
noun, LN
toy
dreth
noun, DN
horror, psychological disturbance, dread, slang term for drethzulh
drethulai
adjective
horrified, disturbed
drethuzhai
adjective
horrifying, disturbing, dreadful
drethyn
verb
horrify, disturb
drethzulh
noun, DN
“horror-ghost”, a dead soul transformed into a demonic entity
drich
noun, TN
idol, false god
druch
noun, TN
god, deity
druchdhom
noun, TN
theocracy
druchdhomulai
adjective
theocratic
druchulai
adjective
divine, godly
drudh
noun, LN
wood, lumber
drudhruz
noun, LN
woodworker, carpenter
drudhulai
adjective
wooden
drudhyn
verb
work with wood
druv
noun, DN
fear
druvulai
adjective
scared, frightened, afraid
druvuzhai
adjective
scary, frightening
druvyn
verb
scare, frighten
druzh
noun, LN
red color
druzhulai
adjective
red
druzhyn
verb
redden
dryvt
noun, TN
movement
dryvtulai
adjective
mobile
dryvtyn
verb
move
du
conjunction
intervenetive but
duc
noun, LN
head
dum
noun, DN
decision, choice, fate
dumulai
adjective
chosen, fateful
dumun
noun, DN
predestination, destiny, unavoidable fate, doom, assignment
dumunulai
adjective
predestined, destined, doomed, assigned
dumunyn
verb
predestine, doom, designate, assign
dumuzhai
adjective
decisive
dumyn
verb
decide, choose
dur
noun, LN
arm, military division consisting of 2–4 chatru
durzenr
noun, DN
military rank in command of a dur
dusc
noun, LN
introduction
duscyn
verb
introduce
duth
noun, DN
predecessor, previous or old thing
duthbven
noun, TN
yesterday
duthlhas
noun, TN
last month
duthnactr
noun, DN
yesterday night
duthnaudh
noun, TN
last year
duthulai
adjective
previous
duthylvr
noun, LN
tomorrow’s daytime
duthyn
verb
precede
duthzhet
noun, LN
ancestor
dvescr
noun, LN
discovery
dvescryn
verb
discover
dvuc
noun, DN
absolute or complete darkness
dvuculai
adjective
completely dark
dvucyn
verb
darken completely
dvust
noun, DN
desert, wasteland
dyrzh
noun, DN
unwellness, failure
dyrzhulai
adjective
unwell, unsuccessful
dyrzhyn
verb
fail
dythn
noun, TN
that
dyv
noun, TN
this
dzev
noun, DN
anti-light, dark matter
dzevyn
verb
destroy light
dzul
noun, LN
bat
Dzulnoch
noun, LN
race name, "bat-kin"

E

eb
noun, DN
new moon, lack, shortage, shortfall, inadequacy, absence
ebazhi
adjective
nowhere
Eboth
noun, TN
city name, “new-moon-home”
ebulai
adjective
empty, invisible, hidden, absent, inadequate
elc
conjunction
exclusive or
elv
noun, LN
purity, cleanliness
elvulai
adjective
pure, clean
elvuzhai
adjective
purifying
elvyn
verb
purify, cleanse
enr
number
seven
enrai
noun, adjective
seventh (ordinal)
enrash
noun
seventh (fraction)
erl
noun, DN
detectable but indefinable quality, appearance, aura, presence, air, projected feeling
esr
noun, TN
noun, generic pronoun often used as the English what or thing
ethn
number
eleven
ethnai
noun, adjective
eleventh (ordinal)
ethnash
noun
eleventh (fraction)
etr
noun, TN
existence, reality
etruvi
adjective
real
etryn
verb
be, exist
evhm
noun, DN
dimness, twilight, gloom
evhmulai
adjective
dim, gloomy
evhmyn
verb
dim
evm
number
ten
evmai
noun, adjective
tenth (ordinal)
evmash
noun
tenth (fraction)
ezhl
noun, DN
throw, shot
ezhlyn
verb
throw, shoot, fire
ezt
number
five
eztai
noun, adjective
fifth (ordinal)
eztash
noun
fifth (fraction)

H

halzr
noun, TN
accident, coincidence
halzryn
verb
happen by chance
harch
noun, DN
mistake, accident, error
Harchast
noun, LN
mountain range name, “punish mistakes”
harchulai
adjective
mistaken, accidental
harchyn
verb
make a mistake, have or cause an accident
havn
noun, LN
rest, rejuvenation, healing
havnruz
noun, LN
healer, doctor
havnthir
noun, TN
hospital
havnulai
adjective
rested, refreshed, healed
havnuzhai
adjective
restful, refreshing, healing
havnyn
verb
rest, refresh, rejuvenate, heal
havr
noun, TN
energy, force, power
havrulai
adjective
energetic, powerful
havruzhai
adjective
energizing
havryn
verb
energize, power, fuel
haz
noun, adjective, DN
negativity, negation, no, not, none
hazulai
adjective
negative, negated, not
hazyn
verb
negate
hech
noun, DN
curse, hex
hechulai
adjective
cursed, hexed
hechuzhai
adjective
cursing, hexing
hechyn
verb
curse, hex
hedhr
noun, TN
clothing, garment, covering
hedhrulai
adjective
clothed
hedhryn
verb
clothe, wear
hezt
noun, TN
rarity, uncommonness
heztulai
adjective
rare, uncommon
horv
noun, LN
cow, cattle, beef
hum
noun, LN
dirt, soil
humyn
verb
bury, plant

I

icr
noun, TN
sign, signal, beacon, guide, marker
icryn
verb
signal, mark
imvr
noun, LN
clarity, transparency
imvrulai
adjective
clear, transparent
imvruzhai
adjective
clarifying (physically)
imvryn
verb
clarify (physically), clear
ithl
noun, DN
bow (and arrow)
ithluz
verb, LN
archer
ithlyn
verb
weild a bow

L

lachn
noun, DN
lake, pond
larc
noun, TN
length
lel
noun, LF
girl, daughter
lelavca
adjective
girly, girlish
let
noun, TN
greeting, meeting
letyn
verb
greet, meet
lezh
noun, DN
border between light and dark, edge of a shadow
lezhulai
adjective
flickering
lezhyn
verb
flicker, pass between light and dark
lhans
noun, TN
key
lhansrysn
noun, TN
keyhole
lhansyn
verb
unlock
lhas
noun, TN
blink, month
lhast
noun, LN
east (i.e., “the east”)
lhasyn
verb
blink
lheth
noun, TN
posture, poise
lhethulai
adjective
posed, poised
lhethyn
verb
pose
lhezb
noun, TN
brain, mind, intelligence, logic, intellect
lhezbulai
adjective
smart, intelligent, logical, intellectual
lhezbuzhai
adjective
bringing intellectual clarity, giving intelligence
lhezbyn
verb
reason, use logic, apply intelligence, think
lhir
noun, LN
light
lhirs
noun, DN
penetration, puncture
lhirsulai
adjective
stabbed, pierced, punctured
lhirsuzhai
adjective
piercing, penetrating
lhirsyn
verb
stab, thrust, poke, pierce, penetrate
lhirulai
adjective
shiny, bright, illuminated
lhiruzhai
adjective
shining, brightening, illuminating
lhiryn
verb
shine, brighten, illuminate
lhudh
noun, DN
vision, dream
lhudhavca
adjective
dreamy, dream-like
lhudhyn
verb
dream, experience a vision
lhulv
noun, LN
canine, wolf, dog
lhun
noun, number, DN
moon, twelve
lhunai
noun, adjective, DN
twelfth (ordinal)
lhunash
noun, DN
twelfth (fraction)
lhunlhir
noun, DN
moonlight
lhuntsyl
noun, DN
snow that glows at night
lhunzenr
noun, DN
military rank in command of a moct
lhutr
noun, TN
definition, outline, sketch
lhutrulai
adjective
defined, outlined, sketched
lhutruzhai
adjective
defining
lhutryn
verb
define, outline, sketch
lhyrm
noun, LN
snake, serpent, worm, eel
lob
noun, LN
foot
lobyn
verb
walk
loelvh
noun, DN
empty speech, pointless words
loelvhyn
verb
speak without actually communicating anything
loobyn
verb
run
lund
noun, TN
boat, ship
lunduz
noun, LN
sailor
lundyn
verb
sail or travel by boat
lurz
noun, TN
lie, falsehood, fakery, deception
lurzuvi
adjective
false, fake, deceptive
lurzyn
verb
lie, fake, deceive, express untruth
luuv
noun, DN
sea, ocean
luv
noun, DN
water
luvazr
noun, DN
spring (lit. “water-birth”)
luvdryvt
noun, TN
swim
luvdryvtyn
verb
swim
luvrac
noun, TN
coast, shore, beach (lit. “water-earth”)
luvulai
adjective
wet, moist, damp
luvuzhai
adjective
wettening, moistening, dampening
luvyn
verb
wetten, moisten, dampen
lyl
noun, LN
mouth
lyldlyn
noun, LN
voice
lylmoct
noun, LN
tongue
lylvh
noun, TN
language, speech, word
lylvhulai
adjective
wordy
lylvhuzhai
adjective
talkative
lylvhyn
verb
speak, talk, say
lyvt
noun, TN
pulling action or motion
lyvtyn
verb
pull, draw, lure
lyylvh
noun, LN
shout, scream, loud voice
lyylvhyn
verb
shout, scream, use a loud voice

M

macvr
noun, DN
shock, surprise, sudden fear
macvrulai
adjective
shocked, surprised, startled, frightened
macvruzhai
adjective
shocking, surprising, startling, frightening
macvryn
verb
shock, surprise, startle, frighten
madr
noun, LN
freedom, liberation, release
madrulai
adjective
free, liberated, released
madrun
noun, LN
free will
madruzhai
adjective
freeing, liberating, releasing
madryn
verb
free, liberate, release
maldhn
noun, DN
trouble, difficulty, hindrance, obstacle, problem
maldhnulai
adjective
troubled, hindered
maldhnuzhai
adjective
troubling, difficult, hindering, problematic
maldhnyn
verb
trouble, hinder
mar
noun, TN
physical matter or substance
march
noun, TN
habit, schedule
marchuvi
adjective
habitual, regular
marchyn
verb
establish or maintain a habit or schedule
maruvi
adjective
physical
maz
noun, DN
sickness, illness, plague, disease
mazulai
adjective
sick, ill, plagued, diseased
mazuzhai
adjective
sickening
mazyn
verb
sicken, make ill, plague, spread disease
mdhav
noun, DN
emotion, feeling
mdhavulai
adjective
emotional, sensitive to emotions
mdhavuzhai
adjective
emotionally relatable, triggers emotions
mdhavyn
verb
feel an emotion
meb
noun, DN
stupidity, foolishness
mebulai
adjective
stupid, foolish
mebyn
verb
act stupidly or foolishly
medhr
noun, LN
field, meadow, yard, plain, clearing (in a forest)
mel
noun, LN
moral good
meluvi
adjective
morally good
meluzhai
adjective
does moral good
melyn
verb
do good works
men
noun, TN
era, age, epoch
mert
noun, TN
timelessness, eternity
mertulai
adjective, TN
timeless, eternal
meth
noun, LN
knowledge, information, familiarity
methir
noun
school
methulai
adjective
knowledgeable
methuz
noun, LN
teacher
methuzhai
adjective
informative, educational
methyn
verb
know, learn, teach
moct
noun, LN
finger, military division consisting of 12 soldiers
moctyn
verb
point, offer an example, designate
morb
noun, TN
world, broader realm
mord
noun, TN
moment, event
mordyn
verb
happen
morn
noun, DN
bravado, false or stupid bravery, recklessness
mornulai
adjective
full of bravado, prone to recklessness
mort
noun, TN
time, age, measurement, continuation
mortashai
adjective
impatient, young, new
mortnen
noun, TN
house, specifically the building or location
mortulai
adjective
patient, old, aged, continuous
mortuz
noun, TN
clock, guage, scale, ruler
mortyn
verb
wait, age, measure, live, continue
morv
noun, DN
suspense, anticipatory fear
morvulai
adjective
held in suspense, fearful
morvuzhai
adjective
suspenseful, foreboding, ominous
morvyn
verb
hold in suspense, forebode
mraund
noun, DN
predator, hunter
mraundulai
adjective
hunted, preyed upon
mraunduzhai
adjective
predatory
mraundyn
verb
hunt, prey upon
mreth
noun, DN
memory
mrethulai
adjective
capable of remembering
mrethuvi
adjective
remembered
mrethuzhai
adjective
memorable
mrethyn
verb
remember, recall
mrethzhect
noun, DN
reminder, memento, souvenir
mudh
noun, TN
brown color
mudhulai
adjective
brown
mudhyn
verb
make or become brown
mund
noun, TN
masonry, brick, stone
mundulai
adjective
made of brick or stone
munduz
noun, LN
mason
mundyn
verb
build with brick or stone
mut
noun, TN
change, transformation, mutation
mutulai
adjective
changed, transformed, mutated, morphed
mutuzhai
adjective
transformative
mutyn
verb
change, transform, mutate, morph
muv
noun, TN
simplicity, minimalism
muvulai
adjective
simple, minimal
muvyn
verb
simplify
mvazh
noun, DN
illusion, hallucination, mirage, vision
mvazhavca
adjective
illusory
mvazhuz
noun, LN or DN
illusionist (LN), hallucinogen (DN)
mvazhyn
verb
hallucinate, see visions
mvu
interjection
so yeah, there it is, that’s that
mydazh
noun
similarity, equality
mydazhulai
adjective
similar, the same, comparable, equal
mydazhyn
verb
compare or be compared with something else and prove similar or equal
mydryvt
noun
sideways movement
mydryvtyn
verb
move sideways
mylarc
noun, TN
medium length
mylarculai
adjective, TN
of medium length
mylheth
noun, TN
seated posture
mylhethulai
adjective
seated
mylhethyn
verb
sit
mymzar
noun, TN
moderate amount
mymzarulai
adjective
moderate in number
myrc
noun, DN
curtain, veil, shroud
myrcnen
noun, DN
hiding place
Myrcrysn
noun, TN
city name, “veiled-hollow”
myrculai
adjective
hidden, covered, obscured
myrcuzhai
adjective
hiding, covering, obscuring
myrcyn
verb
hide, cover
myvhet
noun, TN
average density, firmness, or hardness
myvhetulai
adjective
of average density, firmness, or hardness
myvuzc
noun, TN
medium size
myvuzculai
adjective
of medium size
myzed
noun, TN
vertical middle, medium height
myzedulai
adjective
of medium height
myzedyn
verb
level out
myzric
noun, TN
moderate pace
myzriculai
adjective
moderately paced
myzricyn
verb
hold a moderate pace
mzar
noun, TN
number, quantity
mzaryn
verb
count, quantify, measure
mzath
noun, DN
forgetfulness
mzathulai
adjective
forgetful
mzathuvi
adjective
forgotten
mzathuzhai
adjective
forgetable
mzathyn
verb
forget
mzauch
noun, DN
war
mzauchulai
adjective
warlike
mzauchyn
verb
wage war

N

na
noun, LM
third-person pronoun
Naal Neth
noun, TN
city name, “shadow of fatal exhaustion”
Nactdrel
noun, LN
race name, “night-child”
Nactlylvh
noun, TN
language name, “night-speech”
nactlylvhyn
verb
speak Nactlylvh
nactr
noun, DN
night
nactruvi
adjective
nocturnal
nactryn
verb
become night
Nactvulru
noun, DN
organization name, “night-blades”
nactzetlylvh
noun, TN
script name, “night-writing”
nactzetlylvhyn
verb
write nactzetlylvh
nadr
noun, DN
lowest point, minimum, nadir
Nadr-Nu
noun, LN
summer
nal
noun, DN
exhaustion, drain, tiredness
nalulai
adjective
exhausted, drained, tired
naluzhai
adjective
exhausting, draining, tiring
nalyn
verb
exhaust, drain, tire
nar
noun, LN
successor, new or next thing
narbven
noun, TN
tomorrow
narlhas
noun, TN
next month
narnactr
noun, DN
tomorrow night
narnaudh
noun, TN
next year
narulai
adjective
new, next
narylvr
noun, LN
yesterday’s daytime
naryn
verb
come after
nash
noun, LN
morning, dawn, sunrise
narzhet
noun, LN
descendant
nau
noun, DM
third-person pronoun
naudh
noun, TN
nod, year
naudhyn
verb
nod
nauth
noun, LN
eating, ingestion, digestion, consumption
nauthyn
verb
eat, ingest, digest, consume
ndhu
conjunction
because that is the reason
ne
noun, LN
third-person pronoun
nen
noun, TN
place, position, location
nenyn
verb
be in a place, occupy a position
neth
noun, DN
shadow
Nethrel
noun, TN
city name, “shadow-village”
nethulai
adjective
shadowy (literally, not as in “suspicious”)
nethyn
verb
cast a shadow
nev
noun, TN
ditch, gully, canyon, crevice, chasm
nez
noun, DN
moral evil
nezuvi
adjective
morally evil
nezuzhai
adjective
does or causes moral evil
nezyn
verb
do evil works
ni
noun, LF
third-person pronoun
nlys
noun, DN
destruction
nlysh
noun, LN
necessity
nlyshuvi
adjective
necessary
nlyshyn
verb
need
nlysulai
adjective
destroyed
nlysuzhai
adjective
destructive
nlysyn
verb
destroy
no
noun, DN
third-person pronoun
noch
noun, TN
type, kind, category, relation, kin
nochulai
adjective
related, in kind, kindred
nochyn
verb
categorize, relate
notr
noun, DN
favorite, darling, prize, something precious, term of endearment
notrulai
adjective
favorite, darling, prized, precious
notryn
adjective
favor, prize, consider precious
nrac
noun, DN
holiness, sanctity
nraculai
adjective
holy, sacred
nracyn
verb
sanctify
nsarc
noun, DN
lightning, electricity
nsarculai
adjective
electric
nsarcyn
verb
strike with lightning, electrify, electrocute, zap
nsarczvhiir
noun, DN
lightning storm
nsarczvhiiryn
verb
lightning storm
nu
noun, DF
third-person pronoun
nuc
noun, LN
food, drink
nucyn
noun
prepare, gather, or eat food or drink
nurz
noun, LN
happiness, joy
nurzulai
adjective
happy, joyful
nurzyn
verb
rejoice, be glad
nvars
noun, TN
sending
nvarsulai
adjective
sent
nvarsyn
verb
send
nvestr
noun, LN
bug, insect
nvisr
noun, DN
sacrifice, offering
nvisrubai
adjective
sacrificial
nvisryn
verb
sacrifice, offer
nvit
noun, TN
technique, trick, knack
nvitulai
adjective
full of tricks, knowledgeable of many techniques
nvityn
verb
perform a a technique or trick
nvotr
noun, DN
devotion, selflessness, sacrificial love
nvotruzhai
adjective
devoted, selfless, sacrificially loving
nvotryn
verb
devote, act selflessly, love sacrificially
nvu
conjunction
because, as a result of
nvych
noun, DN
betrayal, treachery, treason
nvychulai
adjective
betrayed
nvychuz
noun, LN
traitor, betrayer
nvychuzhai
adjective
treacherous, traitorous, treasonous
nvychyn
verb
betray
ny
noun, TN
third-person pronoun
nyld
noun, LN
wellness, success
nyldulai
adjective
well, successful
nyldyn
verb
succeed
nys
noun, LN
sibling
nysavca
adjective
sisterly
nytr
determiner
other, another
nzecr
noun, DN
murder, intentional or evil death
nzecrulai
adjective
murdered
nzecruzhai
adjective
murderous
nzecryn
verb
murder, intentionally die or kill

O

o
interjection
well?, and?, and you?, you?, right?, alright?, yeah?
oedr
noun, TN
ability
oedrulai
adjective
able, capable
oedruzhai
adjective
enabling
oedryn
verb
can, enable
orb
noun, DN
mist, fog, smoke, haze
oth
noun, LN
home, haven, shelter, place of comfort and safety

R

rac
noun, LN
earth, ground, land
rach
noun, LN
agreement
rachuzhai
adjective
agreeable
rachyn
verb
agree
racyn
verb
bury in the earth
rad
noun, LM
boy, son
radavca
adjective
boyish
ravtr
noun, LN
bird, any flying animal
rel
noun, DN
awed fear or terror
relulai
adjective
simultaneously awed and terrified
reluzhai
adjective
simultaneously awe-inspiring and terrifying
relyn
verb
simultaneously inspire awe and terror
reshcr
noun, LN
something that stays, act of staying
reshcryn
verb
stay, remain, linger
ret
noun, LN
servant, slave
retyn
verb
serve, slave
reu
interjection
now, so, by the way
revn
noun, LN
remainder, remnant, that which is left
revnuvi
adjective
remaining, spared
revnyn
verb
remain, spare
rez
noun, LN
victory
rezhbr
noun, LN
escape
rezhbryn
verb
escape, flee, get away
rezulai
adjective
victorious
rezuz
noun, LN
victor, winner
rezyn
verb
win
rezzhect
noun, LN
prize, trophy, award
ris
noun, LN
rescue, salvation
risyn
verb
rescue, save
riv
noun, TN
summons, crop
rivuz
noun, LN
summoner, harvester, gatherer, caller, reaper
rivyn
verb
summon, harvest, gather, call, reap
rudh
noun, LN
scent, odor, smell
rudhulai
adjective
scented, has a smell
rudhyn
verb
smell, sniff, waft, track or detect by scent
ryld
noun, DN
beauty
ryldulai
adjective
beautiful
ryldyn
verb
beautify
ryls
noun, DN
wish, desire, covetousness
rylsulai
adjective
wishful, wanting, full of desire, covetous
rylsuzhai
adjective
wished for, wanted, desired, coveted
rylsyn
verb
wish, desire, want, covet
rysn
noun, DN
emptiness, hole, void
rysnulai
adjective
empty, hollow
rysnuzhai
adjective
emptying, hollowing
rysnyn
verb
empty, hollow out
ryvht
noun, DN
anger
ryvhtulai
adjective
angry
ryvhtuzhai
adjective
angering
ryvhtyn
verb
anger

S

sa
interjection
OK, right, yeah, alright, sure, mm-hm
sab
noun, LN
art, technique, craft
sabulai
adjective
artful (an outcome)
sabuz
noun, LN
artist
sabuzhai
adjective
artistic (a person)
sabyn
verb
practice an art, technique, or craft
sal
noun, LN
help, assistance, aid
saluz
noun, LN
helper, assistant
saluzhai
adjective
helpful
salyn
verb
help, assist, aid
sanz
noun, LN
sense, perception, feeling
sanzulai
adjective
sensitive, perceptive, feeling
sanzuzhai
adjective
perceptible
sanzyn
verb
sense, perceive, feel
sav
noun, LN
positivity, yes
savuzhai
adjective
positive
sbectr
noun, TN
color, hue, dye, pigment
sbectrulai
adjective
colorful, colored, dyed
sbectryn
verb
color, dye
sbren
noun, LN
growth, sprout
sbrenyn
verb
grow, sprout
scach
noun, DN
dryness
scachulai
adjective
dry
scachyn
verb
dry out
scazm
noun, TN
plan, map, diagram, schematic
scazmulai
adjective
planned, mapped, diagramed, orchestrated
scazmyn
verb
plan, map, diagram, orchestrate
scel
noun, TN
group, collection
scelyn
verb
group, collect, gather
scer
noun, DN
thinness, skinnyness, slenderness, diffusion
scerulai
adjective
thin, skinny, slender, diffuse
sceryn
verb
thin, spread out, diffuse
schal
noun, LN
south (i.e., “the south”)
schash
noun, LN
fire, flame
schashulai
adjective
fiery, flaming
schashyn
verb
burn with fire
sder
noun, DN
distraction
sderulai
adjective
distracted
sderuzhai
adjective
distracting
sderyn
verb
distract
selm
noun, LN
gift, generosity
selmuzhai
adjective
generous
selmyn
verb
give
set
conjunction
successive and
seth
noun, number, TN
trio, trinity, three
sethai
noun, adjective
third (ordinal)
sethash
noun
third (fraction)
shaml
noun, TN
conduit, channel
shamlulai
adjective
channeled
shamlyn
verb
channel
shantr
noun, TN
music, song
shantrulai
adjective
musical
shantruz
noun, LN
singer or musician
shantryn
verb
sing, play music
shard
noun, TN
fraction, piece, segment, section, fragment
shcar
noun, LN
fish, any submarine animal
shrich
noun, DN
point, spike, thorn, tip of a blade
shrichulai
adjective
pointy, spiky, thorny
shy
determiner
few
shymr
noun, LN
gold
shymrulai
adjective
golden
shyn
noun, DN
pain, torment
shynulai
adjective
hurt, pained
shynuzhai
adjective
painful, torturous
shynyn
verb
hurt, torture
slilh
noun, LN
sun
slilhir
noun, LN
sunlight
sord
noun, DN
evening
sordyn
verb
become evening
sruch
noun, DN
strike, blow, attack, assault, offense
sruchyn
verb
strike, attack, assault, offend
stabr
noun, TN
story, account, history
stabryn
verb
tell a story, give an account, relate history
stavr
noun, DN
denial, refusal, withholding
stavryn
verb
deny, refuse, withhold
sty
determiner
most
stych
noun, DN
stigma, taboo, something avoided or set apart, a bad reputation
stychulai
adjective
stigmatized, avoided or set apart, having a bad reputation
stychuzhai
adjective
stigmatizing, causing avoidance, causing a bad reputation
stychyn
verb
stigmatize, avoid or set apart, give a bad reputation
suc
noun, LN
fruit
sucsyylv
noun, LN
fruit tree
sucyn
verb
bear fruit
sur
noun, DN
hatred, bitterness
surulai
adjective
hateful, bitter
suruz
noun
enemy, foe
suruzuzhai
verb
antagonistic, enemy
suruzyn
verb
antagonize
suryn
verb
hate
svart
noun, LN
crowd, swarm, flock, herd
svartulai
adjective
crowded
svartyn
verb
crowd, swarm, flock together
svech
noun, LN
seed
svechyn
verb
plant, sow
svy
determiner
many, lots
sybl
noun, LN
nocturnal bird with black and white feathers and a haunting, laugh-like cry
sycr
noun, DN
warscythe, glaive, halberd
sycruz
noun, LN
halberdier
sycryn
verb
weild a warscythe
sylv
noun, LN
plant, vegetation
sylvdur
noun, LN
branch
sylvmoct
noun, LN
twig
sylvnen
noun, LN
garden or patch of vegetation
sylvtres
noun, LN
leaf
sylvulai
adjective
overgrown with vegetation
syrv
noun, DN
river, stream, creek
syylv
noun, LN
tree
syylvcurn
noun, LN
bark
syylvnen
noun, LN
forest

T

tacuryn
verb
bring
tadazhulai
adjective
greater when compared with something else
tadazhyn
verb
compare or be compared with something else and prove greater
tadryvt
noun
forward movement
tadryvtyn
verb
advance
talarc
noun, LN
long length
talarculai
adjective
long
talarcyn
verb
lengthen
talheth
noun, LN
upright or standing posture, stance
talhethulai
adjective
standing, vertical
talhethyn
verb
stand
tamortulai
adjective
long-lasting
tamzar
noun, LN
high number, great amount
tamzarulai
adjective
great in number
tamzaryn
verb
increase in number or amount
tarac
noun, LN
hill
tascel
noun, LN
majority
tavhet
noun, LN
high density, firmness, solidity, hardness
tavhetulai
adjective
dense, firm, solid, hard
tavhetyn
verb
solidify, harden
tavuzc
noun, TN
bigness, largeness
tavuzculai
adjective
big, large
tavuzcyn
verb
grow
tazed
noun, LN
top, height
tazedulai
adjective
tall, high, rising
tazedyn
verb
ascend, rise
tazric
noun, LN
fast pace, speed
tazriculai
adjective
fast, quick, swift, speedy
tazricyn
verb
accelerate, go fast
ten
noun, TN
border, boundary, limit, stopper, range
tenlheth
noun, TN
unmoving stance
tenlhethyn
verb
stand firm, hold one’s ground
tenyn
verb
stop, arrest, cease, limit, reach the edge or limit
tesr
noun, TN
try, attempt
tesryn
verb
try, attempt
tezhn
noun, TN
keeper, miser, greed
tezhnulai
adjective
greedy, possessive
tezhnyn
verb
hold, keep
tha
noun, LM
second-person pronoun
thasn
noun, TN
gray color
thasnulai
adjective
gray
thasnyn
verb
make or become gray
thau
noun, DM
second-person pronoun
the
noun, LN
second-person pronoun
thelv
noun, DN
silence
thelvulai
adjective
silent
thelvuzhai
adjective
silencing
thelvyn
verb
make or become silent
thesc
noun, DN
dusk, the moment just before true night
thi
noun, LF
second-person pronoun
thir
noun, TN
building, facility
tho
noun, DN
second-person pronoun
thrac
noun, LN
initiative, ambition
thraculai
adjective
shows initiative, ambitious
thracyn
verb
seize initiative
thred
noun, TN
line
threl
noun, TN
settlement, colony, village
threlyn
verb
settle, colonize, incorporate as village
thu
noun, DF
second-person pronoun
thuz
noun, DN
black color
thuzulai
adjective
black
thuzyn
verb
blacken
thy
noun, TN
second-person pronoun
tlhevc
noun, DN
ice
tlhevculai
adjective
icy, frozen
tlhevcyn
verb
freeze, make or become ice, coat with ice
treb
noun, TN
journey
trebyn
verb
journey, travel
trech
noun, DN
ugliness, distortion, perversion
trechulai
adjective
ugly, distorted, perverse
trechuzhai
adjective
uglifying, distorting, perverting
trechyn
verb
uglify, distort, pervert
tres
noun, LN
hair, fur
tresulai
adjective
hairy, furry
trezb
noun, TN
table, desk
trov
noun, LN
work, labor
trovulai
adjective
busy, hard-working, dilligent
trovuzhai
adjective
laborious
trovyn
verb
work, labor
try
determiner, TN
every, all
tsylh
noun, DN
snow
Tsylhdrel
noun, LN
race name, “snow-child”
tsylhir
noun, DN
light reflected off snow, especially at night
tsylhulai
adjective
snowy
tsylhyn
verb
snow
tum
noun, DN
fall
tumulai
adjective
fallen
tumyn
verb
fall
turvn
noun, TN
circle, ring
turvnulai
adjective
circular, round
turvnyn
verb
spin, rotate, turn
tuurvn
noun, TN
sphere, globe
tvhel
noun, LN
mountain
tvhelulai
adjective
mountainous
tvyc
noun, DN
waste, garbage, rot
tvyculai
adjective
rotten
tvycuzhai
adjective
wasteful
tvycyn
verb
waste, throw out, rot
tyrn
noun, DN
farewell, parting
tyrnyn
verb
bid farewell, part
tyrz
noun, LF
queen
tyrzavca
adjective
queenly
tyrzyn
verb
reign as queen
tzevd
noun, LM
king
tzevdavca
adjective
kingly
tzevdyn
verb
reign as king

U

ub
conjunction
conditional if-then conjunction
ue
interjection
ah, oh, uh-huh
umvr
noun, DN
darkness
umvrulai
adjective
dark
umvruzhai
adjective
darkening
umvryn
verb
darken
un
noun, LN
self, individuality, consciousness, volition, identity
urzh
noun, TN
metal, iron, steel
urzhthir
noun, TN
forge
urzhulai
adjective
metal, iron, steel
urzhuz
noun, LN
metalworker, blacksmith
Uuvdhyn
noun, TN
country name, “deep-sorrow-land”
uvluv
noun, DN
tear, rain
uvluvyn
verb
cry, sob, weep, rain
uvlylvh
noun, DN
cry
uvlylvhyn
verb
cry out in grief
uvn
conjunction
because
uvr
noun, DN
sadness, grief
uvrulai
adjective
sad
uvryn
verb
grieve, mourn
uz
noun, TN
something or someone that performs an action

V

va
noun, LM
second/third-person pronoun (honorific)
vashc
noun, TN
passing motion
vashcuzhai
adjective
parallel
vashcyn
verb
pass, go by
vau
noun, DM
second/third-person pronoun (honorific)
ve
noun, LN
second/third-person pronoun (honorific)
vebl
noun, DN
worship
veblulai
adjective
worshipful
veblyn
verb
worship
vecs
noun, LN
increase
Vecs-Nu
noun, DN
autumn
vecsulai
adjective
increasing
vecsyn
verb
increase
ven
noun, DN
decrease
Ven-Nu
noun, LN
spring (season)
venulai
adjective
decreasing
venyn
verb
decrease
vesc
noun, LN
arrival, entrance
vescyn
verb
come, arrive, enter
vest
noun, LN
body
vethr
noun, DN
outer space, vacuum, the Void, spiritual or deathly realm
vhadhr
noun, LN
ease
vhadhrulai
adjective
easy
vhalh
noun, DN
pallor, pale coloration, the color of corpse skin, pale sickly green
vhalhulai
adjective
pale, corpse-like (in color)
vhalhyn
verb
pale
vhan
noun, LN
baby, infant
vhashn
noun, TN
behavior, manner
vhashnyn
verb
behave, act in a manner
vhel
noun, LN
defense, sanctuary, fortress, protection
Vhel Dreth
noun, TN
city name, “horror sanctuary”
vheln
noun, LN
commoner, peasant
vhelndhom
noun, TN
democracy
vhelndhomulai
adjective
democratic
vhelulai
adjective
defended, protected, guarded
Vhel Umvr
noun, TN
city name, “darkness sanctuary”
vheluzhai
adjective
defensive, protective
vhelyn
verb
defend, protect, guard
vhenr
noun, LN
tooth, fang
vhenrulai
adjective
toothy, chewy
vhenryn
verb
bite, chew
vhet
noun, TN
density, firmness, give
vhez
noun, TN
way, path, road, method
vhezulai
adjective
guided, directed
vhezuz
noun
director, guide
vhezuzhai
adjective
guiding, directing
vhezyn
verb
follow a path or method, guide, direct
vhlac
noun, LN
cat, feline
vhlech
noun, LN
moss, lichen
vhlhuvr
noun, LN
flower
vhlhuvryn
verb
blossom
vhlur
noun, DN
outcry or exclamation (especially of grief), thunder
vhluryn
verb
cry out or exclaim (especially in grief), thunder
vhlurzvhiir
noun, DN
thunderstorm, emotional meltdown or tantrum
vhlurzvhiiryn
verb
thunderstorm, have an emotional meltdown, throw a tantrum
vhlut
noun, TN
plane, flat surface
vhostr
noun, TN
influence
vhostrulai
adjective
influenced
vhostruzhai
adjective
influential
vhostryn
verb
influence
vhrez
noun, LN
forgiveness, pardon
vhrezulai
adjective
forgiven, pardoned
vhrezuzhai
adjective
forgiving
vhrezyn
verb
forgive, pardon
vhryzn
noun, DN
coolness, chill
vhryznulai
adjective
feels cool, chilly (e.g., “I am chilly”)
vhryznuzhai
adjective
cooling, chilling (e.g., the weather is chilly”)
vhryznyn
verb
make or become cool
vhusr
noun, TN
use, function, practicality
vhusrulai
adjective
useful, functional, practical
vhusrulai
verb
use, function
vhyn
noun, LN
family
vhynulai
adjective
familial, related
vhyst
noun, DN
sense of longing, wistfulness, nostalgia
vhystulai
adjective
longing, wistful, nostalgic
vhystuzhai
adjective
longed for, nostalgic
vhystyn
verb
long for, be nostalgic
vi
noun, LF
second/third-person pronoun (honorific)
vir
noun, TN
city, town
viryn
verb
incorporate as city or town
vledr
noun, DN
champion, knight, warrior with mastery of both sword and magic
vles
noun, LN
priest/priestess
vlhyd
noun, LN
horse, pony, donkey, steed
vlhyd
verb
ride a horse
vnedht
noun, DN
moving or living shadow
vnedhtulai
adjective
covered in moving shadows
vnedhtyn
verb
cast a moving shadow
vo
noun, DN
second/third-person pronoun (honorific)
voch
noun, TN
vehicle, cart, carriage
vochuz
noun, TN
driver
vochyn
verb
drive or travel by vehicle
vodh
noun, TN
geometric concept of space (of any dimension)
vrachn
noun, DN
paradox, contradiction, inconsistency
vrachnulai
adjective
paradoxical, contradictory, inconsistent
vrachnyn
verb
contradict, refute
vredh
noun, LM
brother
vredhavca
adjective
brotherly
vrem
noun, DN
victim, prey, game, quarry
vreth
noun, LN
hope, possibility, potential
vrethulai
adjective
hopeful (e.g., someone who is hopeful), possible, potentially
vrethuvi
adjective
possible
vrethyn
verb
hope
vroch
noun, LN
laughter, mirth
vrochuzhai
adjective
silly, funny, laughable
vrochyn
verb
laugh
vrochzhect
noun, LN
joke
vrush
noun, LN
heat
vrushulai
adjective
feels hot (e.g., “I am hot”)
vrushuzhai
adjective
causes heat (e.g., “the weather is hot”)
vrushyn
verb
heat
vrushyzh
adjective
heating
vruush
noun, LN
burning heat
vruushyn
verb
burn
vry
determiner, TN
any
vryt
noun, LN
soft bodily tissue, organs, fat
vsyn
noun, LN
blood, bodily fluid
vsynyn
verb
bleed
vu
noun, DF
second/third-person pronoun (honorific)
vud
noun, TN
window, porthole, scrying surface
vulr
noun, DN
blade, weapon, point made in an argument
vulruz
noun, LN
warrior or combatant
vulryn
verb
weild a weapon, argue a point
vurd
noun, LN
bravery, courage, inspiration
vurdulai
adjective
brave, courageous, inspired
vurduzhai
adjective
encouraging, inspiring
vurdyn
verb
embolden, encourage, inspire
vuvn
noun, TN
reason, purpose, cause
vuvnulai
adjective
purposeful
vuvnyn
verb
cause something
vuzc
noun, TN
size
vuzh
noun, DN
west (i.e., “the west”)
vyrcr
noun, LN
back, spine
vyscr
noun, LN
entrails, guts, gore
vzen
noun, TN
will, command
vzenulai
adjective
willful, commanding
vzenyn
verb
will, command

Y

y
interjection
uh, um, hm
yl
conjunction
unitive and
yld
noun, LN
connection, mixture, combination, bond
yldulai
adjective
connected, mixed, combined, bound, together
ylduzhai
adjective
connecting, binding
yldyn
verb
connect, mix, combine, bind
Ylvdrel
noun, LN
race name, “day-child”
ylvr
noun, LN
daytime
ylvruvi
adjective
diurnal
ylvryn
verb
become day
ynd
noun, DN
hunger
yndulai
adjective
hungry
yndyn
verb
hunger, starve
yr
conjunction
inclusive or
yrs
noun, LN
plenty, abundance, satisfaction, fullness
yrsulai
adjective
plentiful, abundant, full
yrsuzhai
adjective
satisfying, filling
yrsyn
verb
satisfy, fill
yvr
noun, TN
order, law, organization, moderation
yvrulai
adjective
lawful, organized
yvryn
verb
enforce law and order, organize, moderate

Z

zach
noun, LM
prince, male heir or ruler
zachyn
verb
inherit or rule (male)
zadhr
noun, DN
good or natural death
zadhrulai
adjective
well or naturally dead
zadhryn
verb
die a good or natural death
zalth
noun, DN
quiet, peace, serenity, calm
zalthulai
adjective
quiet, peaceful, serene, calm
zalthuzhai
adjective
quieting, pacifying, calming
zalthyn
verb
make or become quiet, pacify, calm
zarc
noun, TN
perfection, completion, transcendence, maturity, paragon
zarclhun
noun, DN
full moon, one hundred fourty-four
zarclhunai
noun, number, DN
one hundred fourty-fourth
zarculai
adjective
perfect, complete, transcendent, mature
zarcyn
verb
perfect, complete, transcend, mature
zarczenr
noun, DN
highest military rank
zaur
noun, LN
lizard, reptile
zavhr
noun, DN
blue color
zavhrulai
adjective
blue
zavhryn
verb
make or become blue
zcur
noun, LN
preference
zcuruzhai
adjective
prefered, preferable
zcuryn
verb
prefer, like
zebr
noun, DN
sword
zebruz
noun, LN
swordfighter
zebryn
verb
weild a sword
zed
noun, TN
height, vertical size
zeesht
noun, LN
grandparent
zelt
noun, LF
mother
zeltavca
adjective
motherly
zeltyn
verb
mother a child
zenr
noun, LN
commander, lord, governor
zenravca
adjective
commanding, lordly
zenryn
verb
command, govern
zer
noun, LN
master, manager, mayor
zeravca
adjective
masterful, managerial
zeryn
verb
master, manage
zesht
noun, LN
parent
zeshtavca
adjective
parental (person)
zeshtuvi
adjective
parental (things)
zeshtyn
verb
parent, nurture, or raise a child
zetlylvh
noun, TN
writing, written word
zetlylvhyn
verb
write
zetnen
noun, DN
grave, tomb, bed, bedroom
zetr
noun, DN
death, end, finish
zetrai
noun, adjective
last, final
zetravn
noun, DN
sleep
zetravnulai
adjective
sleepy
zetravnuzhai
adjective
sleep-inducing
zetravnyn
verb
sleep
Zetres
noun, DF
the Nactdrel goddess of death
zetrulai
adjective
dead, ended, finished
zetruzhai
adjective
deadly, fatal, ending, finishing
zetryn
verb
die, kill, end, finish, stop
zetthir
noun, DN
mausoleum, tomb, charnel house
zha
noun, LM
first-person pronoun
zhambr
noun, LN
leg
zhan
noun, TN
skill, talent
zhanulai
adjective
skilled, talented, practiced
zhanyn
verb
train, practice
zhasn
noun, LF
princess, heiress or ruler
zhasnyn
verb
inherit or rule (female)
zhau
noun, DM
first-person pronoun
zhe
noun, LN
first-person pronoun
zhect
noun, TN
inanimate thing, object
zhectyn
verb
objectify
zhet
noun, LN
person
zhetavca
adjective
person-like
zhetuzhai
adjective
humanizing
zhetyn
verb
anthropomorphize, humanize
zhi
noun, LF
first-person pronoun
zhlys
noun, DN
separation, cut, distance, division
zhlysulai
adjective
separate, cut, severed, far, divided
zhlysuzhai
adjective
separating, cutting, severing, distancing, dividing
zhlysyn
verb
separate, cut, sever, divide
zho
noun, DN
first-person pronoun
zhra
conjunction
also, too, as well
zhu
noun, DF
first-person pronoun
zhul
noun, LF
woman
zhulavca
adjective
womanly, feminine
zhusm
noun, TN
idea, concept, distinct thought
zhusmavca
adjective
conceptual
zhusmyn
verb
brainstorm, come up with an idea
zhy
noun, TN
first-person pronoun
zleet
noun, DN
battle, ball (as in dance)
zlet
noun, DN
fight, argument, dance, interaction
zletavca
adjective
battle-like, dance-like, interactive
zletuz
noun, LN
dancer, fighter
zletyn
verb
battle, fight, argue, dance, interact
zlylth
noun, TN
thought, consideration
zlylthulai
adjective
thoughtful
zlylthuzhai
adjective
thought-provoking
zlylthyn
verb
think, ponder, consider
znan
noun, TN
shape, form
znanulai
adjective
shapely, shaped, formed
znanyn
verb
shape, form
zneth
noun, DN
darkest, quietest period of the night
znuc
noun, DN
remorse, regret, apology, sorrow
znuculai
adjective
remorseful, apologetic, sorrowful
znucuzhai
adjective
regrettable
znucyn
verb
regret, apologize
zrel
noun, TN
truth
zrelulai
adjective
true
zrelyn
verb
express the truth, verify
zric
noun, TN
pace, rate of motion, speed
zricyn
verb
set a pace
zucuryn
verb
take or carry away
zudazhulai
adjective
lesser when compared with something else
zudazhyn
verb
compare or be compared with something else and prove lesser
zudryvt
noun
backward movement
zudryvtyn
verb
retreat
zularc
noun, DN
short length
zularculai
adjective
short
zularcyn
verb
shorten
zulh
noun, DN
ghost, spirit
zulhavca
adjective
ghostly, spiritual
zulhchauth
noun, DN
“soul-break”, insanity, madness
zulhchauthulai
adjective
insane, mad, crazy
zulhchauthyn
verb
drive or act insane or crazy
zulhdhach
noun, DN
“soul-theft”, evil necromancy
zulhdhachulai
adjective
of or relating to evil necromancy
zulhdhachuz
noun, LN
“soul-thief”, evil necromancer
zulhdhachyn
verb
perform evil necromancy
zulheth
noun, DN
reclined posture
zulhethulai
adjective
lying or reclined, horizontal
zulhethyn
verb
lie or recline
zulhulai
adjective
haunted
zulhzer
noun, LN
“soul-mastery”, good necromancy
zulhzerulai
adjective
of or relating to good necromancy
zulhzeruz
noun, LN
“soul-master”, good necromancer
zulhzeryn
verb
perform good necromancy
zumortulai
adjective
brief
zumzar
noun, DN
low number, small amount
zumzarulai
adjective
low in number
zumzaryn
verb
decrease in number or amount
zurac
noun, DN
valley, dell, dale
zurdh
noun, LM
father
zurdhavca
adjective
fatherly
zurdhyn
verb
father a child
zuscel
noun, DN
minority
zut
noun, TN
solitude, loneliness, one
zutai
noun, adjective
first
zutulai
adjective
alone, lonely, isolated, solo, once
zutuzhai
adjective
isolating
zutyn
verb
cause to be alone, abandon, isolate
zuvcr
noun, DN
accidental death
zuvcrulai
adjective
dead by accident
zuvcruzhai
adjective
prone to causing lethal accidents
zuvcryn
verb
die or kill by accident
zuvhet
noun, DN
low density, softness
zuvhetulai
adjective
soft
zuvhetyn
verb
soften
zuvuzc
noun, TN
smallness, littleness
zuvuzculai
adjective
small, little
zuvuzcyn
verb
shrink
zuzed
noun, DN
bottom, shortness
zuzedulai
adjective
short, low, descending
zuzedyn
verb
descend, lower, set
zuzric
noun, DN
slow pace
zuzriculai
adjective
slow
zuzricyn
verb
decelerate, go slowly
zvhect
noun, TN
result, outcome, effect
zvhectulai
noun
resulting
zvhiir
noun, DN
storm, especially a windstorm
zvhiirulai
adjective
stormy
zvhiiryn
verb
storm, rage like a storm
zvhir
noun, DN
air, breath
zvhirdryvt
noun, TN
flight
zvhirdryvtyn
verb
fly
zvhirulai
adjective
airy, windy, breathy
zvhiryn
verb
blow, breathe, inflate
zvit
noun, TN
wit, cleverness
zvitulai
adjective
clever
zvityn
verb
outwit, act clever
zy
determiner
the
zyc
noun, number, DN
nothing, zero
zynth
noun, DN
full moon, completeness, wholeness, fullness
zynthulai
adjective
full, complete, whole
zynthuzhai
adjective
filling, completing, holistic
zynthyn
adjective
fill, complete
zyth
noun, LN
highest point, maximum, zenith
Zyth-Nu
noun, DN
winter