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Nactlylvh: Language of the Night

Introduction

Nactlylvh, or “Night Speech”, is the native language of the Nacdrel, a race of immortal humanoids. It is also spoken by people influenced by Nacdrel culture. Some interesting features of the language include:

  • Free word order
  • Ergative-absolutive case system
  • Five-tiered plural system
  • Two definite articles—proximal and distal—but no indefinite article
  • No morphological distinction between past- and present-tense verbs
  • Octal number system

Notation

Phonetic transcriptions appear within brackets (e.g., [ɱ]). These represent precise, individual sounds where subtle variations matter.

Phonemic transcriptions appear within slashes (e.g., /ɱ/). These represent groups of similar sounds. A language considers all members of a group to be a single sound in spite of any subtle differences.

Orthographic transcriptions appear within chevrons (e.g., ⟨m⟩). These represent the written letters a language uses to represent a sound.

Phonetic and phonemic transcriptions use the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Most of the IPA pronunciations can be heard here:

Phonology

Consonants

Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal /ɱ/ /n/
Stop /t d/ /k/
Fricative /f v/ /θ ð/ /s z/ /ʃ ʒ/ /x/
Approximant /χ ʁ/
Lateral Approximant /l/
Consonants
IPA Pronunciation
/ɱ/ English ⟨m⟩ with upper teeth against lower lip, as in ⟨symphony⟩
/n/ English ⟨n⟩ as in ⟨night⟩
/t/ English ⟨t⟩ as in ⟨time⟩
/d/ English ⟨d⟩ as in ⟨dark⟩
/k/ English ⟨k⟩ as in ⟨kill⟩, never ⟨c⟩ as in ⟨cell⟩
/f/ English ⟨f⟩ as in ⟨fate⟩
/v/ English ⟨v⟩ as in ⟨vapor⟩
/θ/ English ⟨th⟩ as in ⟨thin⟩
/ð/ English ⟨th⟩ as in ⟨then⟩
/s/ English ⟨s⟩ as in ⟨sigh⟩
/z/ English ⟨z⟩ as in ⟨zero⟩
/ʃ/ English ⟨sh⟩ as in ⟨shy⟩
/ʒ/ English ⟨s⟩ as in ⟨vision⟩
/x/ Scottish ⟨ch⟩ as in ⟨loch⟩
/χ/ Guttural hiss, with optional growl or purr
/ʁ/ Guttural or French ⟨r⟩, with optional growl or purr
/l/ English ⟨l⟩ as in ⟨lake⟩, never as in ⟨cool⟩
Consonant Pronunciation Guide

Nactlylvh has a late voicing onset time. Prolonged voiced consonants may even be pronounced as an unvoiced phoneme followed by a voiced one (e.g., /zː/ may be pronounced as [sz]).

[ɱ̥ ɱ], [n̥ n], and [l̥ l] are complementary allophones of /ɱ/, /n/, and /l/, respectively. The voiced phonemes in each of those pairs only occur adjacent to other voiced consonants.

Although [χ ʁ] are technically fricatives according to the IPA, in Nactlylvh they may be formed as either fricatives or approximants. For the purposes of phonotactical constraints, they are always considered approximants.

Doubled nasals, fricatives, and approximants are simply prolonged. The second in a doubled stop is fricativized (e.g., /kk/ is pronounced [kx]). Note that alveolar /t d/ fricativize into dental /θ ð/ (e.g., /tt/ is pronounced [tθ]).

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close /i/ /ɯ/
Close-Mid /ɪ/ /ɤ/
Open-Mid /ɛ/ /ʌ/
Open /ä/
Vowels
IPA Pronunciation
/i/ English ⟨ee⟩ as in ⟨free⟩
/ɯ/ English ⟨u⟩ as in ⟨lure⟩, but without rounding the lips
/ɪ/ English ⟨i⟩ as in ⟨bit⟩
/ɤ/ English ⟨oo⟩ as in ⟨foot⟩
/ɛ/ English ⟨e⟩ as in ⟨bed⟩
/ʌ/ Something between English ⟨u⟩ as in ⟨gut⟩ and ⟨o⟩ as in ⟨not⟩
/ä/ English ⟨a⟩ as in ⟨father⟩
Vowel Pronunciation Guide

Although seven vowels are given above, in practice they can often be reduced to just three: /ɪ ɤ ä/. All the others are allophones in most cases:

  • [i ɪ ɛ] are allophones of /ɪ/
  • [ɯ ɤ ʌ] are allophones of /ɤ/

Note that, in contrast to English, the lips are never rounded when pronouncing back vowels.

Doubled or long vowels are pronounced as two short vowels separated a non-syllabic /χ/ (e.g., /äː/ is pronounced [äχä]).

When /ɛ/ appears at the end of a word following a consonant, it tends to centralize toward the schwa sound [ə].

Diphthongs

IPA Pronunciation
/ɪ̯ɛ/ English ⟨ye⟩ as in ⟨yet⟩
/ɤ̯ɪ/ English ⟨wi⟩ as in ⟨win⟩
/ɤ̯ä/ English ⟨wa⟩ as in ⟨water⟩
/ɛɪ̯/ English ⟨ay⟩ as in ⟨day⟩
/äɪ̯/ English ⟨i⟩ as in ⟨spine⟩
Diphthong Pronunciation Guide

Phonotactics

Nactlylvh syllables adhere to the following rules:

  • Syllables follow the pattern (C)(C)V(C)(C), that is:
    1. Up to two optional consonants
    2. A required vowel (which may be short, long, or a diphthong)
    3. Up to two optional consonant
  • Onset consonant clusters adhere to the following order:
    1. Nasal or stop
    2. Fricative
    3. Approximant
  • Coda consonant clusters are only allowed at the end of a word, and adhere to the opposite order:
    1. Approximant
    2. Fricative
    3. Nasal or stop
  • Consonant pairings from the same level of the hierarchy are only allowed between onset fricatives, and only if they adhere to the following order:
    1. Dental
    2. Alveolar
    3. Labiodental
  • Postalveolar fricatives may not be paired with other fricatives
  • Adjacent consonants must agree in voicing
  • /x/ may only be paired with /k/ and approximants, or /t/ in codas

For ease of reference, here are the romanizations of all the possible Nactlylvh onsets:

⟨c⟩ ⟨cch⟩ ⟨cl⟩ ⟨cr⟩ ⟨cth⟩ ⟨cv⟩ ⟨cz⟩ ⟨czh⟩
⟨ch⟩ ⟨chl⟩ ⟨chr⟩
⟨d⟩ ⟨ddh⟩ ⟨dl⟩ ⟨dr⟩ ⟨dv⟩ ⟨dz⟩ ⟨dzh⟩
⟨dh⟩ ⟨dhl⟩ ⟨dhr⟩ ⟨dhv⟩ ⟨dhz⟩
⟨h⟩
⟨l⟩
⟨m⟩ ⟨mdh⟩ ⟨ml⟩ ⟨mr⟩ ⟨ms⟩ ⟨msh⟩ ⟨mth⟩ ⟨mv⟩ ⟨mvh⟩ ⟨mz⟩ ⟨mzh⟩
⟨n⟩ ⟨ndh⟩ ⟨nl⟩ ⟨nr⟩ ⟨ns⟩ ⟨nsh⟩ ⟨nth⟩ ⟨nv⟩ ⟨nvh⟩ ⟨nz⟩ ⟨nzh⟩
⟨r⟩
⟨s⟩ ⟨sl⟩ ⟨sr⟩ ⟨sv⟩
⟨sh⟩ ⟨shl⟩ ⟨shr⟩
⟨t⟩ ⟨tl⟩ ⟨tr⟩ ⟨tth⟩ ⟨tv⟩ ⟨tz⟩ ⟨tzh⟩
⟨th⟩ ⟨thl⟩ ⟨thr⟩ ⟨thv⟩ ⟨thz⟩
⟨v⟩ ⟨vl⟩ ⟨vr⟩
⟨vh⟩ ⟨vhl⟩ ⟨vhr⟩
⟨z⟩ ⟨zl⟩ ⟨zr⟩ ⟨zv⟩
⟨zh⟩ ⟨zhl⟩ ⟨zhr⟩

Onsets

And all the possible Nactlylvh codas:

⟨c⟩ ⟨ct⟩
⟨ch⟩ ⟨chc⟩
⟨d⟩
⟨dh⟩ ⟨dhd⟩
⟨l⟩ ⟨lc⟩ ⟨lch⟩ ⟨ld⟩ ⟨ldh⟩ ⟨lm⟩ ⟨ln⟩ ⟨ls⟩ ⟨lsh⟩ ⟨lt⟩ ⟨lth⟩ ⟨lv⟩ ⟨lvh⟩ ⟨lz⟩ ⟨lzh⟩
⟨m⟩
⟨n⟩
⟨r⟩ ⟨rc⟩ ⟨rch⟩ ⟨rd⟩ ⟨rdh⟩ ⟨rm⟩ ⟨rn⟩ ⟨rs⟩ ⟨rsh⟩ ⟨rt⟩ ⟨rth⟩ ⟨rv⟩ ⟨rvh⟩ ⟨rz⟩ ⟨rzh⟩
⟨s⟩
⟨sh⟩
⟨t⟩
⟨th⟩ ⟨thc⟩ ⟨tht⟩
⟨v⟩ ⟨vc⟩ ⟨vd⟩ ⟨vt⟩
⟨vh⟩
⟨z⟩ ⟨zc⟩ ⟨zd⟩ ⟨zt⟩
⟨zh⟩ ⟨zhc⟩ ⟨zhd⟩ ⟨zht⟩

Codas

Some of the onsets and codas above seem to violate the phonotactical rules (e.g., voiced and unvoiced consonants appearing together, as in ⟨cz⟩). This is a result of Nactlylvh’s romanization scheme, and only affects written language. All the clusters above are prounounced in accordance with the phonotactical rules (e.g., ⟨cz⟩ is pronounced /ks/).

Intersyllabic (a.k.a., medial) consonant clusters adhere to the following rules:

  • No more than three consonants
  • The first two consonants must together form a legal coda cluster
  • The last two consonants must together form a legal onset cluster

During affixation, certain phoneme patterns arise which are subject to additional rules. These rules affect both pronunciation and spelling; therefore, they are simpler to explain using romanized examples:

  • In any pattern of C1C2V(V)(C3)C2, drop the first occurrence of C2
    • ⟨nactavtre⟩ → ⟨nacavtre⟩
    • ⟨rysnanai⟩ → ⟨rysanai⟩
    • ⟨umvavtre⟩ → ⟨umavtre⟩
  • In any pattern of ⟨r⟩VC⟨r⟩, drop the final ⟨r⟩ and double the preceding C
    • ⟨dracre⟩ → ⟨dracce⟩
    • ⟨tryzre⟩ → ⟨tryzze⟩
    • ⟨druchre⟩ → ⟨druchhe⟩
    • ⟨drylre⟩ → ⟨drylle⟩
  • In any pattern of C⟨lr⟩, drop the final ⟨r⟩
    • ⟨adhlre⟩ → ⟨adhle⟩
    • ⟨ithlre⟩ → ⟨ithle⟩
  • In any pattern of C⟨l⟩V(V)⟨r⟩, move the ⟨l⟩ to the end of the pattern and drop the ⟨r⟩
    • ⟨adhlyr⟩ → ⟨adhyl
    • ⟨ithluyr⟩ → ⟨ithuyl
  • In any pattern of C⟨r⟩⟨r⟩, drop the second ⟨r⟩
    • ⟨nutrre⟩ → ⟨nutre⟩
    • ⟨etrre⟩ → ⟨etre⟩
  • In any pattern of ⟨ruyr⟩, drop the first ⟨r⟩
    • ⟨nutruyr⟩ → ⟨nutuyr
    • ⟨etruyr⟩ → ⟨etuyr
  • If an illegal medial consonant cluster arises, drop the second consonant; repeat until the cluster is legal
    • ⟨nactdrylle⟩ → ⟨nacdrylle⟩
    • ⟨umvnactre⟩ → ⟨umnactre⟩

Note that these changes only apply to patterns that appear across syllable boundaries as a result of morphological processes. Uninflected, non-compound words are never affected.

Syllabification

Syllable breaks are placed according to the following rules:

  • Never divide word-initial consonant clusters: ⟨mvar⟩, ⟨dvus⟩
  • Divide medial and word-final clusters of two consonants:
    • Between nasals and any other consonant: ⟨um-vyr⟩, ⟨uv-n⟩
    • Between stops and fricatives at different places of articulation: ⟨ac-zyr⟩, but ⟨u-dzyr⟩
    • Between fricatives and approximants: ⟨us-re⟩
    • Between any combination that is not a legal onset: ⟨az-zhul⟩
  • Divide after the first in a three-consonant cluster: ⟨nac-tre⟩, ⟨um-vre⟩
  • Divide after vowels followed by single consonants: ⟨zy-vyr⟩
  • Never divide diphthongs: ⟨nuar⟩
  • Never divide long vowels: ⟨tsy-ly-zaan⟩
  • Divide between adjacent, non-diphthong vowels: ⟨zi-yr⟩

Stress

Nactlylvh stress is regular and can be determined by following these steps:

  1. Stress the final syllable: ⟨dhavyr
  2. If the final syllable is a standalone nasal or ends in a vowel, move the stress to the penultimate syllable: ⟨dhavre⟩
  3. If the word contains a doubled consonant, move the stress to the vowel immediately preceding the last instance of such phonemes: ⟨azzytyr⟩
  4. If the word contains a long vowel or diphthong, move the stress to the last instance of such phonemes: ⟨sylvaa

Orthography

Romanization

IPA Romanization
/ɱ/ ⟨m⟩
/ɱː/ ⟨mm⟩
/n/ ⟨n⟩
/nː/ ⟨nn⟩
/k/ ⟨c⟩
/t/ ⟨t⟩
/d/ ⟨d⟩
/f/ ⟨vh⟩ by itself or adjacent to a nasal or approximant, ⟨v⟩ otherwise
/fː/ ⟨vhh⟩
/v/ ⟨v⟩
/vː/ ⟨vv⟩
/θ/ ⟨th⟩
/θː/ ⟨thh⟩
/ð/ ⟨dh⟩
/ðː/ ⟨dhh⟩
/s/ ⟨s⟩ by itself or adjacent to a nasal or approximant, ⟨z⟩ otherwise
/sː/ ⟨ss⟩
/z/ ⟨z⟩
/zː/ ⟨zz⟩
/ʃ/ ⟨sh⟩ by itself or adjacent to a nasal or approximant, ⟨zh⟩ otherwise
/ʃː/ ⟨shh⟩
/ʒ/ ⟨zh⟩
/ʒː/ ⟨zhh⟩
/x/ ⟨c⟩ immediately preceding /t/, ⟨ch⟩ otherwise
/xː/ ⟨chh⟩
/χ/ ⟨h⟩ by itself, ⟨r⟩ otherwise
/ʁ/ ⟨r⟩
/ʁː/ ⟨rr⟩
/l/ ⟨l⟩
/lː/ ⟨ll⟩
/i/ ⟨y⟩ between two consonants, ⟨i⟩ otherwise
/iː/ ⟨ii⟩
/ɯ/ ⟨u⟩
/ɯː/ ⟨uu⟩
/ɪ/ ⟨e⟩ at the end of a word, ⟨y⟩ otherwise
/ɪː/ ⟨yy⟩
/ɪ̯ɛ/ ⟨ie⟩
/ɤ/ ⟨u⟩
/ɤː/ ⟨uu⟩
/ɤ̯ä/ ⟨ua⟩
/ɤ̯ɪ/ ⟨uy⟩
/ɛ/ ⟨y⟩ between two consonants, ⟨e⟩ otherwise
/ɛː/ ⟨yy⟩
/ɛɪ̯/ ⟨ae⟩
/ʌ/ ⟨u⟩
/ʌː/ ⟨uu⟩
/ä/ ⟨a⟩
/äː/ ⟨aa⟩
/äɪ̯/ ⟨ai⟩
Romanization

There is some overlap in the romanization of consonants, which can make reading Nactlylvh a little tricky. The following rules should help:

  • If a lone consonant has variable voicing (i.e., ⟨m n l⟩), it is unvoiced
  • In consonant clusters:
    • If both consonants have the same voicing, use that voicing
    • If one of the consonants has variable voicing (i.e., ⟨m n l r⟩), use the other consonant’s voicing (e.g., ⟨mv⟩ is pronounced /ɱv/, but ⟨ms⟩ is pronounced /ɱ̥s/)
    • If both consonants have variable voicing, they are unvoiced (e.g., ⟨ml⟩ is pronounced /ɱ̥l̥/)
    • If the cluster is a syllable onset, use the first consonant’s voicing (e.g., ⟨dri⟩ is pronounced /dʁi/, ⟨tri⟩ is pronounced /tχi/)
    • If the cluster is a syllable coda, use the second consonant’s voicing (e.g., ⟨yvd⟩ is pronounced /ɪvd/, ⟨yvt⟩ is pronounced /ɪft/)
    • ⟨h⟩ only appears in clusters as part of a di- or trigraph (e.g., ⟨dh⟩ and ⟨vhh⟩ are pronounced /ð/ and /fː/)

Similarly, the heavy use of ⟨y u⟩ blurs a lot of vowel distinction. But in the case of those two letters, it doesn’t really matter how one reads them, since the differences between the phones they represent are almost never used to distinguish words.

Writing Direction

Native Nactlylvh is written from right to left, top to bottom. However, for convenience, all examples in this guide are written from left to right, as in English.

Capitalization

The following are capitalized:

  • First word in a sentence
  • Every word in the name of a specific entity (e.g., a person, place, time, creative work, etc.)

Take special note of the term specific entity. Nactlylvh is far more conservative with its capitalization than English, using it almost exclusively for denoting a unique instance of a thing. For example, ⟨America⟩ would be capitalized because it refers to a specific country, but ⟨american⟩ is not capitalized because it refers to a subgroup of people, not a specific person.

Capitalization of times can be a little trickier for English speakers, although they follow the same rule. The word ⟨day⟩ would not be capitalized, of course, but neither would ⟨sunday⟩ or even ⟨easter⟩. All of those terms refer to subgroups; there’s a new Easter every year, after all. But a one-time event, such as a particularly memorable Easter, may be given a name (e.g., ⟨Great Easter⟩), and that name would be capitalized.

Although it is not a rule, pronouns and other references to deities are often capitalized. A variation on this tendency is that divine references are capitalized only when the speaker is not a deity themself.

Names of languages are not capitalized.

This guide will use English capitalization rules except when presenting Nactlylvh examples.

Punctuation

You can generally use English conventions for punctuation, with a few exceptions:

  • Commas are usually reserved for separating clauses
  • Punctuation marks only go inside quotation marks if they are themselves part of the quotation
  • Semicolons are never used; form separate sentences instead
  • Exclamation points are rare and viewed similarly to all-caps in English

Alphabetical Order

Nactlylvh uses an alphabetical order that differs from English:

⟨m vh v n t d th s sh dh z zh l c ch h r y i e u a⟩

Alphabetical Order

This order reflects some phonological awareness. Consonants come first, followed by vowels. Consonants are arranged first by position, then closure, and finally voicing. Note that the dental, alveolar, and postalveolar positions are collapsed. Vowels are arranged first by height, then frontness, with ⟨i e⟩ treated as variants of ⟨y⟩.

For convenience, this guide will use English alphabetical order.

Parts of Speech

The Nactlylvh lexicon is organized into nine parts of speech:

Most words undergo some form of inflection. Nactlylvh uses mostly fusional suffixes, although prefixes and agglutinative inflections also occur.

Nouns

Noun roots are the core of Nactlylvh, forming the basis for nearly all other words in the lexicon. There is no verb or descriptive that does not derive from a noun, and many determiners and numbers derive from them as well.

Nactlylvh nouns decline by number and case by applying a declension suffix:

Singular Paucal Plural Comprehensive Null
Ergative ⟨aa⟩ ⟨uu⟩ ⟨ym⟩ ⟨ii⟩ ⟨ach⟩
Absolutive ⟨yr⟩ ⟨ur⟩ ⟨yrym⟩ ⟨yri⟩ ⟨yrach⟩
Reflexive ⟨aar⟩ ⟨uur⟩ ⟨aarym⟩ ⟨aari⟩ ⟨aarach⟩
Locative ⟨re⟩ ⟨ru⟩ ⟨rym⟩ ⟨ri⟩ ⟨rach⟩
Lative ⟨avtre⟩ ⟨avtru⟩ ⟨avtrym⟩ ⟨avtri⟩ ⟨avtrach⟩
Ablative ⟨anai⟩ ⟨anui⟩ ⟨anym⟩ ⟨anyri⟩ ⟨anach⟩
Nominal Declension

If the root ends in a consonant, simply append the suffix. If the root ends in a vowel, the suffix replaces the final vowel. This replacement may split up diphthongs. If a replacement results in three identical consecutive vowels, drop one of them (e.g., ⟨aaa⟩ becomes ⟨aa⟩).

The citation form for nouns is the locative singular.

Nactlylvh has five grammatical numbers:

Singular
Singular is used when there is exactly one of a thing (e.g., a tree), or if the thing is uncountable (e.g., water).
Paucal
Paucal can be used for any quantity greater than one, but less than half of the total quantity (e.g., in a group of eight trees, paucal may imply 2–3 trees). In practice, it is reserved for when the speaker wants to emphasize the quantity’s smallness (e.g., a few trees, some trees, a minority of the trees).
Plural
Plural can be used for any quantity that represents half or more of the total quantity, but not all of it (e.g., in a group of eight trees, plural may imply 4–7 trees). In practice, it is used when the speaker wants to emphasize the quantity’s largeness (e.g., several trees, many trees, most trees). Plural also serves as a default when the speaker is unsure which grammatical number to use (e.g., there are trees).
Comprehensive
Comprehensive is used to refer to all members of a given group (e.g., each tree, every tree, all of the trees). This frequently occurs when speaking of a nationality or organization (e.g., Germans, the Boy Scouts).
Null
Null is used to exclude all members of a given group (e.g., no tree, none of the trees).

Nactlylvh has six cases:

Ergative
The ergative case is used for active subjects (i.e., the subject is doing something).
Absolutive
The absolutive case is used for direct objects and passive subjects (i.e., something is happening to the subject).
Reflexive
The reflexive case is used for subjects that perform actions on themselves or—in the case of multiple subjects—each other.
Locative
The locative case is used alongside a preposition to describe static relationships (e.g., in a house, during the battle, of the king). When combined with the relational preposition, it may signify possession. It may also be used without a preposition as a catch-all for any situation not covered by the other cases (e.g., exclamations, direct addresses, etc.).
Lative
The lative case is used alongside a preposition to describe dynamic positive relationships (e.g., into the house, until the battle, for the king).
Ablative
The ablative case is used alongside a preposition to describe dynamic negative relationships (e.g., away from the house, since the battle, against the king).

Nouns may also be modified by a number of derivational inflections to create new nouns:

Derivation Prefix Suffix
Augmentative ⟨adh⟩
Diminutive ⟨us⟩
Positive ⟨a⟩
Negative ⟨u⟩
Moderative ⟨y⟩
Associated Agent ⟨uz⟩
Associated Patient ⟨ul⟩
Associated Place ⟨nyn⟩
Associated Container ⟨svulc⟩
Associated Object, Result, or Instance ⟨yt⟩
Associated Collection ⟨hant⟩
Derivational Inflections

These derivations are formed prior to the addition of declension suffixes. Not every noun will make use of every derivation.

Augmentative
The augmentative can be loosely translated as “big X” (e.g., ⟨sword⟩ becomes ⟨greatsword⟩).
Diminutive
The diminutive can be loosely translated as “small X” (e.g., ⟨sword⟩ becomes ⟨dagger⟩).
Positive
The positive derivation is similar to the augmentative, and there is no hard and fast rule about when to use which. Often, the positive derivation is used for subtle variations on a concept rather than a completely new concept, or for variations that are more abstract than physical size (e.g., ⟨posture⟩ becomes ⟨standing posture⟩).
Negative
The negative derivation is similar to the diminutive, and there is no hard and fast rule about when to use which. Often, the negative derivation is used for subtle variations on a concept rather than a completely new concept, or for variations that are more abstract than physical size (e.g., ⟨posture⟩ becomes ⟨lying posture⟩).
Moderative
The moderative derivation lies in the middle of the positive-negative axis, and emphasizes averageness or compromise (e.g., ⟨posture⟩ becomes ⟨sitting posture⟩).
Associated Agent
An agent is a person or device that performs an action associated with the noun (e.g., ⟨pursuit⟩ becomes ⟨hunter⟩).
Associated Patient
A patient is a person or object that receives an action associated with the noun (e.g., ⟨pursuit⟩ becomes ⟨prey⟩), often at the hands of the agent.
Associated Place
A place is a building, room, or geographical location where one would expect to encounter the noun (e.g., ⟨monarch⟩ becomes ⟨palace⟩).
Associated Container
A container is similar to a place, but differs in scale; a container is something one might conceivably carry on their person (e.g., ⟨birth⟩ becomes ⟨egg⟩).
Associated Object
The object derivation is mostly used to distill an abstract noun into something more concrete (e.g., ⟨commerce⟩ becomes ⟨money⟩), or an uncountable noun into something countable (e.g., ⟨water⟩ becomes ⟨droplet⟩). It may also be a tool used by an associated agent (e.g., ⟨child⟩ becomes ⟨toy⟩).
Associated Collection
An associated collection is, as the name implies, a grouping of multiple instances of the base noun (e.g., ⟨bone⟩ becomes ⟨skeleton⟩).

Two or more nouns may be concatenated to form a compound noun. The first noun acts as a modifier to the second, or base noun. Any resulting medial consonant clusters must then be altered to respect Nactlylvh’s phonotactics.

The particle ⟨cu⟩ may be placed before any noun to turn that noun into a query noun (e.g., “thing” becomes “what”, “person” becomes “who”, “sword” becomes “which sword”). Unlike in English, query nouns are not used for subordination. They are used exclusively for forming questions.

Prepositions

Prepositions must always immediately precede a noun in either the locative, lative, or ablative case (the prepositional cases) to form a prepositional phrase.

Nactlylvh has just three prepositions:

Locational ⟨lu⟩
The locational preposition is used to describe spatial relationships (e.g., in the house, toward the house, away from the house).
Temporal ⟨dhu⟩
The temporal preposition is used to describe time-based relationships (e.g., during the battle, until the battle, since the battle).
Relational ⟨vu⟩
The relational preposition is used to describe abstract relationships (e.g., of the king, for the king, against the king).

All prepositional phrases in Nactlylvh serve essentially the same purpose as descriptives; that is, they make a noun or verb more specific.

Determiners

Determiners must always immediately follow the noun they describe. In writing, they are attached to the noun by a hyphen. Nactlylvh has three types of determiners:

  • Articles
  • Possessives
  • Quantifiers

Nactlylvh does not have indefinite articles, but it has two definite articles which double as proximal and distal demonstratives. When deciding which—if any—to use, ask these two questions:

  • Is the listener familiar with the entity in question (e.g., “a wolf, you don’t know which one I mean” vs. “the wolf, you know the one”)? If not, don’t use an article
  • Is the entity in question present with the speaker (e.g., the speaker can see, hear, or touch the wolf)?
    • If so, use the proximal definite article ⟨zie⟩
    • If not, use the distal definite article ⟨zai⟩
    • When in doubt, use ⟨zai⟩

Nactlylvh is not as liberal with its articles as English. Proper nouns almost never take an article; where English would say “the Atlantic Ocean”, Nactlylvh says “Atlantic Ocean”. There’s only one, so the article is redundant. It’s similar to how an English speaker would never say “I went to the New York to visit the David.” As a general rule of thumb, terms that are capitalized in Nactlylvh don’t take articles.

Possessive determiners are equivalent to the English possessive pronouns ⟨my⟩, ⟨your⟩, ⟨its⟩, etc. They inflect based on the grammatical number of their referent, not the number of the noun to which they are attached.

Singular Paucal Plural Comprehensive Null
First-Person ⟨zhe⟩ ⟨zhu⟩ ⟨zhym⟩ ⟨zhi⟩ ⟨zhach⟩
Second-Person ⟨thi⟩ ⟨thu⟩ ⟨thym⟩ ⟨thyri⟩ ⟨thach⟩
Third-Person ⟨ne⟩ ⟨nu⟩ ⟨nym⟩ ⟨ni⟩ ⟨nach⟩
Possessive Demonstratives

Numbers may be used as quantifiers, and do not inflect when used as such. Naturally, “zero” may only be attached to null nouns, “one” to singular nouns, and all other counters to paucal, plural, or comprehensive nouns.

A quantifier may be prefixed to any other determiner (e.g., the three swords). The resulting compound determiner must adhere to Nactlylvh’s phonotactics.

Verbs

Verbs conjugate by tense and mood. They may also be modified to act as gerunds. All verbs are derived from noun roots by applying a verbal conjugation suffix:

Infinitive Perfect Imperfect Future Imperfect Future Perfect
Indicative ⟨an⟩ ⟨yzaan⟩ ⟨yzan⟩ ⟨yvan⟩ ⟨yvaan⟩
Desiderative ⟨yn⟩ ⟨uziin⟩ ⟨uzyn⟩ ⟨uvyn⟩ ⟨uviin⟩
Timitive ⟨un⟩ ⟨azuun⟩ ⟨azun⟩ ⟨avun⟩ ⟨avuun⟩
Verbal Conjugation

The citation form for verbs is the infinitive indicative.

Nactlylvh verbs have four morphological tenses:

Perfect
The perfect tense is used for completed actions in the past or present (e.g., he ran, he had run, he has run).
Imperfect
The imperfect tense is used for ongoing, continuous, or habitual actions in the past or present (e.g., he was running, he is running, he runs). Although it is used mostly with the present tense, it can be used to approximate a past tense if an appropriate temporal reference point is set (e.g., he is running yesterday). This tense also serves to replace the English modal verb ⟨can⟩ when combined with the indicative mood.
Future Imperfect
The future imperfect tense is used for actions that will be ongoing, continuous, or habitual in the future (e.g., he will run, he will be running). This tense also serves to replace the English modal verb ⟨can⟩ when combined with the indicative mood.
Future Perfect
The future perfect tense is used for actions that will be completed in the future (e.g., he will have run).

Nactlylvh has five verbal moods:

Indicative
The indicative mood is used for statements of fact (e.g., he is speaking). It can be thought of as a default form. When combined with one of the imperfect tenses, it can represent the English modal verb ⟨can⟩. In rare cases, it may be combined with the future perfect tense to form strong commands.
Desiderative
The desiderative mood is used to express desired outcomes (e.g., I hope he speaks) or positive commands (e.g., speak!). It also serves to replace the English modal verbs ⟨should⟩ and ⟨must⟩. Note that although it is often used as an irrealis mood, it can also be used as a realis mood, in which case it conveys the speaker’s emotional response to a factual event. Context is the only way to determine which meaning is intended.
Timitive
The timitive mood is used to express feared outcomes (e.g., I’m afraid he’ll speak) or negative commands (e.g., don’t speak!). It may also serve to replace the negative (i.e., “not”) forms of the English modal verbs ⟨should⟩ and ⟨must⟩. Note that although it is often used as an irrealis mood, it can also be used as a realis mood, in which case it conveys the speaker’s emotional response to a factual event. Context is the only way to determine which meaning is intended.
Negative
The negative mood may be combined with any of the other moods, and is used to invert their meaning (e.g., it is not raining). It is formed by adding the suffix ⟨ach⟩ to the verb.

If an infinitive verb is given a nominal declension suffix, it becomes a gerund. Gerunds can still take subjects and objects when necessary to form complex prepositional phrases.

Descriptives

Descriptives must immediately follow either a noun or verb. If a descriptive follows a noun, it must agree with that noun in number. If it follows a verb, it must agree in number with the verb’s subject.

Descriptives are derived from noun roots by applying a descriptive suffix:

Singular Paucal Plural Comprehensive Null
Stative ⟨azhi⟩ ⟨azhu⟩ ⟨azhym⟩ ⟨azhyri⟩ ⟨azhach⟩
Causative ⟨uyr⟩ ⟨uur⟩ ⟨uyrym⟩ ⟨uyri⟩ ⟨uyrach⟩
Descriptive Suffixes

There are two forms of descriptives:

Stative
The stative is used when the described noun is in a state (e.g., dead).
Causative
The causative is used when the described noun causes a state (e.g., deadly).

Numbers

Nactlylvh uses an octal number system, meaning it only has eight digits (0–7). This is most likely because Nacdrel have four fingers on each hand (for a total of eight), but it may also bear some relation to the fact that Nacdrel revere the moon with its eight cardinal phases.

Decimal Digit Octal Digit Name
0 0 ⟨ev⟩
1 1 ⟨zut⟩
2 2 ⟨dul⟩
3 3 ⟨syth⟩
4 4 ⟨chat⟩
5 5 ⟨ez⟩
6 6 ⟨as⟩
7 7 ⟨en⟩
8 10 ⟨lur⟩
Numbers

Numbers larger than ⟨lur⟩ are formed via concatenation.

Decimal Digit Octal Digit Name
9 11 ⟨lurzut⟩
10 12 ⟨lurdul⟩
11 13 ⟨lursyth⟩
12 14 ⟨lurchat⟩
13 15 ⟨luryz⟩
14 16 ⟨luras⟩
15 17 ⟨luryn⟩
16 20 ⟨dullur⟩
17 21 ⟨dullurzut⟩
18 22 ⟨dullurdul⟩
19 23 ⟨dullursyth⟩
20 24 ⟨dullurchat⟩
21 25 ⟨dulluryz⟩
22 26 ⟨dulluras⟩
23 27 ⟨dulluryn⟩
24 30 ⟨sythlur⟩
32 40 ⟨chatlur⟩
Larger Numbers

This method allows numbers up to decimal 63 (⟨enluryn⟩, octal 77). Decimal 64 (octal 100) is formed by compounding ⟨arc⟩ (perfection) and ⟨lur⟩, resulting in ⟨arclur⟩.

Fractions are formed by suffixing ⟨ash⟩. Nactlylvh fractions are never used as ordinals like they are in English.

Ordinals are formed by suffixing ⟨ai⟩. Note that the ordinal “last” is derived not from a number, but from ⟨zyt⟩ (death). The numbers 5–7 may alternatively take a stative descriptive suffix. Ordinal forms are never used for fractions like they are in English.

When used as nouns, numbers take a nominal declension suffix. When speaking of the number itself (e.g., “four is a multiple of two”), the number almost always takes singular inflections. However, it may take plural inflections in rare situations, such as referring to all of the threes in a deck of cards.

When used as a quantifier to count things, as in “five swords,” the number is treated as a determiner.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions may connect individual words, phrases, or sentences. Unless stated otherwise, the order of the connected arguments doesn’t matter.

Conjunction English Equivalent Meaning
⟨yl⟩ and Arguments on either side are treated as a single unit
⟨das⟩ but not, except The second argument is excluded
⟨syt⟩ and then The second argument chronologically follows the first
⟨yr⟩ and-or One or more of the linked arguments may be true at the same time
⟨ec⟩ either-or Only one of the linked arguments may be true
⟨uv⟩ if-then If the argument on one side is true, the other is also true
⟨du⟩ however If the argument on one side is true, the other is false
⟨uvn⟩ therefore The first argument causes the second
⟨nvu⟩ because The second argument causes the first
⟨zhra⟩ also Emphasizes similarity between arguments; the argument being compared against may be omitted
Conjunctions

Interjections

English contains a wide array of utterances that help to guide the flow of conversation, for example: ⟨uh⟩, ⟨oh⟩, ⟨well⟩, ⟨OK⟩, ⟨right?⟩, ⟨mm-hm⟩, etc. These are almost entirely absent among Nacdrel, whose speech is characteristically uncluttered, and aided by a deep racial understanding even between strangers. Other Nactlylvh-speaking races, however, have adopted several markers.

In the following chart, note that the speaker is always the one currently in control of the conversation, or taking a turn. The other party is always the listener, even if they are technically uttering an interjection.

Marker Uttered by When Purpose
⟨reu⟩ Speaker Before speaker’s own turn Introduce a new topic, claim the turn
⟨y⟩ Speaker During speaker’s own turn Retain the turn during a moment of thought
⟨mve⟩ Speaker After speaker’s own turn Complete the current topic, surrender the turn
⟨u⟩ Speaker After speaker’s own turn Request the other party to take a turn
⟨ue⟩ Listener During speaker’s turn Acknowledge an ongoing turn
⟨aveu⟩ Listener During speaker’s turn Steal the turn, introduce a new topic
⟨a⟩ Listener After speaker’s turn Acknowledge a finished turn
⟨sa⟩ Listener After speaker’s turn Acknowledge a finished turn with agreement or pleasure
⟨cha⟩ Listener After speaker’s turn Acknowledge a finished turn with disagreement or displeasure
⟨ere⟩ Listener After speaker’s turn Acknowledge a finished turn with confusion, requests clarification
Pragmatic Markers

Particles

Nactlylvh employs a single particle: the interrogative ⟨cu⟩. ⟨cu⟩ may preceed any noun or verb to form a question. The word that ⟨cu⟩ preceeds is the word being questioned (e.g., consider the difference between “Did he read the book?” and “Did he read the book?”).

Syntax

Word Order

Nactlylvh’s case system enables free word order at the sentence level, meaning the major components of a sentence (i.e., subject, object, verb) may technically appear in any order. However, one should be aware of the nuances imparted to a sentence by a chosen arrangement.

The key to understanding how word order affects meaning is emphasis. Nactlylvh places emphasis on the first and last things mentioned, with the last receiving the most attention. Therefore, the first component in a sentence is emphasized as the topic, a piece of information that sets the context for all that follows. The last component in a sentence is emphasized as the comment, a piece of new information, and the sentence’s raison d’être.

The following chart illustrates the differences between the six possible word orders for the simple sentence “I ate the fish.” The translations have been exaggerated to better highlight the nuances:

Order Nactlylvh English
SOV Zhyr czharath-zai nuthyzaan. As for me, I ate the fish.
SVO Zhyr nuthyzaan czharath-zai. As for me, I ate the fish.
OSV Czharath-zai zhyr nuthyzaan. As for the fish, I ate it.
OVS Czharath-zai nuthyzaan zhyr. As for the fish, it was eaten by me.
VSO Nuthyzaan zhyr czharath-zai. On the subject of eating, I did that to the fish.
VOS Nuthyzaan czharath-zai zhyr. On the subject of eating, the fish was eaten by me.
Word Order and Emphasis

In the absence of any semantic requirements, a default order of subject-object-verb (SOV) is often used. Individual speakers may also favor other default orders for purely aesthetic reasons.

Free word order does not apply at the phrase level. While subjects, verbs, and objects may be arranged however the speaker wishes, their associated descriptives, determiners, and prepositions must adhere to a strict sequence, which is primarily head-first:

  1. Preposition
  2. Particle
  3. Head Noun or Verb
  4. Determiner
  5. Descriptive
  6. Prepositional Phrase
  7. Subordinate Clause

Theoretically, there is no limit to the number of modifiers (descriptives, prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses) that follow the head (the noun or verb). However, the more elements one adds, the harder it is to understand the sentence. As a rule of thumb, a phrase should contain either one prepositional phrase or one subordinate clause. This allows, for example, a prepositional object to itself be modified by a prepositional phrase or subordinate clause without introducing too much ambiguity. Keep things simple, and remember that the prototypical speakers, the Nacdrel, are infamous for their taciturnity.

Contraction

In Nactlylvh, the following parts of speech (elements) are potentially elligible for contraction:

  • Prepositions
  • Particles

Those elements must be contracted to the word immediately following them (their successor, always a noun or verb) if any of the following are true:

  • The successor begins with a vowel
  • The element’s onset and the successor’s onset together form a legal onset cluster (ignoring any voicing rules)

Contraction is performed by omitting the contracted element’s final vowels and attaching it to its successor with an apostrophe.

Redundancy Deletion

If multiple clauses in a compound sentence share the same subject, object, or verb, all but the first occurrence may be omitted (e.g., “he came and he left” becomes “he came and left”).

If a clause’s subject and object are the same entity, as in reflexive or reciprocal sentences, the object must be omitted (e.g., “he hurt himself” becomes “himself hurt”).

In cases where English requires a dummy subject such as ⟨it⟩, Nactlylvh can simply omit the subject entirely (e.g., “it is raining” becomes “is raining”).

Subordination

Subordinate clauses are simply placed after the word they modify, as if they were descriptives. In writing, they are set off from the rest of the sentence by commas (e.g., “I ate the fish that the man caught” becomes “I ate the fish, the man caught it”).

However, native speakers consider such constructions to be clunky. They instead prefer to set up an appropriate context so that subordinate clauses are unnecessary (e.g., “I ate the fish that the man caught” becomes “I ate that fish”).

Questions

Questions may be formed in one of two ways:

  • Intonation
  • The particle ⟨cu⟩

Intonation is the simplest method, but also the least explicit.

The particle ⟨cu⟩ can prompt answers beyond simply “yes” or “no”. It may be placed before the verb, or before any noun to create a query noun.

When the nouns ⟨savre⟩ and ⟨hazre⟩ are used to answer a yes/no question, the case ending may be omitted (e.g., ⟨sav⟩). A plural inflection may be used to answer multiple questions at once (e.g., ⟨savri⟩ “yes to all of the above”) or to qualify an answer (e.g., ⟨savrym⟩ “yes for the most part”).

Commands

Nearly all commands are formed using the desiderative and timitive verbal moods (e.g., “I wish you would go” or “I wish you wouldn’t go). This is the indirect—but polite—way to request something.

A future perfect indicative verb may be used instead (e.g., “you will go”), but this is considered rude and presumptuous. Such direct commands are reserved for those who are particularly prone to disobedience.

Both types of commands may be strengthened by omitting the subject, but only if the subject is also the listener (e.g., “I wish you would go” becomes “I wish would go”).

First- and third-person subjects are possible. “I will go” may be an attempt to motivate oneself. “They will go” can be interpreted as a succinct form of “You (or someone) will order them to go.”

Comparisons

When forming a comparative sentence, first try to use a suitable verb. For instance, instead of saying “John is stronger than David,” say “John overpowers David.”

If an appropriate verb does not exist, then the standard construction for comparative sentences, where x’s quality is being compared against y’s, looks like this:

x compares ⟨lu⟩ quality ⟨vu⟩ y

X always takes the absolutive case. Quality takes the locative case if x’s is equal to or greater than y’s, or the ablative case otherwise. Y takes the ablative case unless both are equal, in which case it takes the locative case. A literal translation of “My son is taller than a tree” would read something like “My son compares with height against a tree.”

The order of the elements can be changed of course, although care should be taken to avoid confusion.

Comparative sentences don’t necessarily need to include a y to compare against, assuming the y is known or unimportant (e.g., “My son compares with height.”).

Nactlylvh gets by without comparative descriptives (e.g., bigger, biggest). Context is enough to determine that, when referring to “the big one,” you mean “the biggest one,” no matter how many large objects are currently present.

Causatives

Causative sentences may be formed in two ways. The first, and most common, lookes like this, where x’s actionx causes y’s actiony:

x actionx actiony ⟨vu⟩ y

X typically takes the ergative case, and actionx is treated as a normal verb. Actiony becomes a gerund in the absolutive case, and y takes the relational locative case. If y is represented by a pronoun, it may instead be appended to actiony as a possessive determiner. A literal translation of “I made him go” would read something like “I caused his going.”

This technique may also be applied beyond causative sentences to any similar verbal relationship, even ones in which the causer-causee relationship is reversed (e.g., “I don’t believe John is telling the truth” becomes “I don’t believe the truth-telling of John”; “I will be happy to go” becomes “I will enjoy my going”); “I assume she’s dead” becomes “I assume her death”.

The second method is to link two independent clauses with the conjunctions ⟨uvn⟩ or ⟨nvu⟩. A literal translation of this method would read something like “I caused, therefore he went” or “He went because I caused.”

Existentials

Existential sentences (e.g., “He is a dog.”) are uncommon in Nactlylvh. Instead, a more colorful, specific verb is used, as in the examples below:

Instead of… Say…
He is a swordsman. He wields a sword.
It is deadly. It kills.
It is black. It has blackened.
He is three years old. He has lived three years.
Replacements for Existential Sentences

The verb ⟨ytran⟩ (“to be”) is usually reserved for when a more appropriate verb does not exist. In that case, both the subject and object (if it isn’t a descriptive) take the absolutive case. The subject is not acting as an agent, and the subject and object labels can be swapped without altering the meaning of the sentence.

If the subject instead takes the ergative case, it implies that the subject is actively behaving as something else (e.g., “He is acting like a dog.”).

Semantics

Opposites

Colloquially, English tends to place antonyms on opposite ends of a spectrum:

Dark Bright
Example of the English Antonym Spectrum

Nactlylvh takes a different perspective:

Dark Bright Dark
Example of the Nactlylvh Antonym Spectrum

Reality is viewed as having a default empty state (e.g., dark). Via creative transition (e.g., illuminate), reality can acheive a full state (e.g., bright). Once in a full state, reality can then undergo a destructive transition (e.g., darken) to return to its default state. The table below illustrates this with several examples:

Empty State Creative Transition Full State Destructive Transition Empty State
nothing to create something to destroy nothing
stillness to move motion to stop stillness
death to birth life to kill death
cold to burn warmth to freeze cold
darkness to brighten light to darken darkness
silence to utter noise to quiet silence
emptiness to fill fullness to empty emptiness
loneliness to arrive companionship to depart loneliness
evil to sanctify good to corrupt evil
apathy to incite emotion to dampen apathy
dryness to moisten moisture to dry dryness
States and Transitions

Not everything defaults to an empty state, however, with morality being the most notable exception. Nacdrel believe that reality’s default state was full of goodness, and evil is caused by a removal of the former.

Life, Death, & Time

The most significant abstract concept in Nacdrel culture is the metaphysical trinity of life, death, and time. These elements are what bind a being’s mortal existence.

The Nacdrel concept of life is related to vitality, but not the act of living. Rather, life represents beginnings and positive change.

Death is the polar opposite of life. It represents endings and negative change. However, death is not necessarily associated with evil; Nacdrel consider it to be a natural, neutral part of existence. In fact, they generally hold the concept of death in higher esteem than that of life; they worship a goddess of death, and reality’s default state is dead.

If life and death are opposed to each other, then time is the judge that stands between them. A being is born of life, and leaves the mortal plane via death; time is what measures the space in between. As mentioned, the concept of life does not encompass the act of carrying out one’s existence (i.e., the act of living); that is instead given to the realm of time. Therefore, instead of saying “I live here,” a Nacdrel would say “I wait here.”

Time

It should come as no surprise that “Night-Children” who communicate in “Night-Speech” use a lunar calendar. The moon is an important religious symbol to the Nacdrel. It represents, among other things, the eye of Zetres, their goddess. Therefore, the major divisions of time revolve around the metaphor of an eye or face.

Division Nactlylvh English
day ⟨nactre⟩ night
month ⟨lasre⟩ blink
year ⟨nudhre⟩ nod
Lunar Divisions of Time

Note that ⟨nactre⟩ represents both a calendar day and nighttime, similar to how English ⟨day⟩ can mean both a calendar day and daytime.

A Nacdrel calendar day starts at moonrise. A Nacdrel month is the time it takes for the moon to pass through all its phases, with a new month beginning at each new moon. The exact duration of these time units varies from world to world.

Nacdrel do not acknowledge a “week” unit. However, other cultures have adapted the Nacdrel calendar and added the concept of weeks. In these societies, a week begins at the start of each lunar phase. So the week of the new moon starts on the first of the month, and the last week of the month starts at the waning half moon. Some cultures use only the new, full, and half moons, resulting in four weeks per month. Other cultures also incorporate the intermediate phases (crescents and gibbouses) for a total of eight weeks per month. Because Nacdrel don’t observe weeks, there is no native term in Nactlylvh.

In English, we’re accustomed to seasons being described by a metaphor of life and death (e.g., summer = life, winter = death). This metaphor is used by the Nacdrel as well, except they tie it to the power of their goddess of death.

Season Nactlylvh English
spring ⟨uynre-ne⟩ Her Waning
summer ⟨nadre-ne⟩ Her Nadir
autumn ⟨uychre-ne⟩ Her Waxing
winter ⟨zythre-ne⟩ Her Zenith
Seasons

When using visual metaphor, Nacdrel culture illustrates time as flowing either downward or leftward, from life to death. When speaking, however, Nactlylvh describes direction in time using dedicated terminology that is completely separate from that used for spatial direction:

Nactlylvh Translation
⟨nuarazhi⟩ future-ward
⟨duthazhi⟩ past-ward
⟨nuaryn⟩ to move future-ward
⟨duthyn⟩ to move past-ward
Temporal Direction

Kinship

Nactlylvh has an odd kinship system, arising from a mixture of Nacdrel biology and religion. Nacdrel view their deities as the ultimate parents of every created being. Therefore, they consider all people to be siblings, and this is reflected in most kinship terms.

English Nactlylvh Literal Translation
parent ⟨azdrylle⟩ life-sibling
father ⟨azdhavre⟩ life-brother
mother ⟨azzhulre⟩ life-sister
child ⟨drylusre⟩ little-sibling
son ⟨dhavusre⟩ little-brother
daughter ⟨zhulusre⟩ little-sister
sibling ⟨drylle⟩ sibling
brother ⟨dhavre⟩ brother
sister ⟨zhulre⟩ sister
spouse ⟨ylddrylle⟩ bond-sibling
husband ⟨ylddhavre⟩ bond-brother
wife ⟨yldzhulre⟩ bond-sister
Kinship Terms

There is another, more direct translation for ⟨parent⟩, but it is used exclusively of deities.

A side effect of this system is that the words for ⟨person⟩ and ⟨sibling⟩ (and their gendered counterparts) are the same; Nactlylvh speakers simply make no linguistic distinction between the two (although being a close blood relative certainly comes with several societal expectations and limitations).

Colors

Nactlylvh colors typically take their names from things that are that color (e.g., ⟨sylvre⟩ “plant” → ⟨green⟩).

The precise breakdown of color categories has its roots in Nacdrel vision. Nacdrel eyes are more sensitive to green and blue wavelengths than human eyes, but less sensitive to red, orange, and yellow. Additionally, Nacdrel are capable of seeing visible light as well as mvadhre, or “anti-light”.

Environment also plays a role in color organization. Nactlylvh is spoken primarily in pole-ward climates where cold hues, such as green and blue, dominate. Warmer colors tend to appear only when the natural state of things has been violated; orange is associated with fire, red with bloodshed.

The result is that while English has six main color categories (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple), Nactlylvh has nine completely different categories, with a heavy emphasis on the green-blue spectrum:

Fire Disease Plant Frost Spirit Ice Day Dusk Blood
Colors

Black, white, and gray are straightforward, being named after darkness, light, and twilight, respectively.

The Nactlylvh equivalent to brown is a broad category named after dried blood. It encompasses the darker shades of red, orange, yellow, and magenta (“fire” and “blood” in the chart above).

Names

Nacdrel names are often, though not always, derived from noun roots by applying a gender-based suffix.

  • Male: ⟨ar⟩, ⟨ym⟩
  • Female: ⟨iel⟩, ⟨rys⟩

Alternatively, a root may be appropriated unmodified for use as a name.

It is not uncommon for a name to be completely unique. A common word may be modified to suit the namer’s taste, or the name may be invented without any etymology at all. The only guideline for invented names is that it must conform to the language’s phonological rules.

A Nacdrel is typically named twice during its life, once at birth (birth name) and again to mark a defining accomplishment (accolade). Birth names may be arbitrary, or they may carry special significance. Accolades always signify the accomplishment for which they are given.

If a Nacdrel’s birth name and accolade are used together, the birth name comes first, followed immediately by the accolade.

Names always decline by case like regular nouns. The birth name and accolade must agree in case and number.

Military Ranks

Nacdrel military forces are organized according to the metaphor of a torso. The smallest division is called a finger, and from there the ranks ascend through the hand, the arm, and the chest.

Nacdrel units are small, necessitated in part by their low populations. However, Nacdrel are exceptionally skilled and can augment their abilities with magic. A small Nacdrel force can be just as formidable as another army several times its size. Human units, on the other hand, are much larger and form the bulk of an army.

Division English Nacdrel Soldiers Human Soldiers
⟨muctre⟩ finger 8 32
⟨chatre⟩ hand 16–32 64–128
⟨durre⟩ arm 32–64 256–512
⟨dylvre⟩ chest 64–128 1024–2048
⟨cuthre⟩ army 128+ 4096+
Military Ranks

Manners

To a Nacdrel, politeness is tied closely with honesty. Amusingly, this often makes them appear rude in other cultures where flattery is preferred to bluntness.

There is also a tendency toward reticence; as a rule, Nacdrel will say no more than what must be said. This is related to politeness (not wanting to waste the listener’s time), but it also touches on several other facets of Nacdrel culture, such as their racial melancholia and deep understanding of each other.

Tone of voice plays a large role in Nacdrel manners. Nactlylvh voicing and stress are subtle. Loud, strongly emphasized speech is a sign of disrespect. This is relative; the threshold between politeness and rudeness is stricter amongst Nacdrel, who are naturally soft-spoken, and more forgiving amongst other races.

Nactlylvh has no equivalent to the English ⟨please⟩ and ⟨thank you⟩. The closest one can get to making a polite request is to speak in a slightly higher, softer voice with a rising intonation. Grattitude is typically expressed through actions and demeanor rather than words.

Nactlylvh has four registers of speech organized by degree of formality:

  1. Familiar
  2. Formal
  3. Honorific
  4. Divine

The familiar register is used between friends. It is standard Nactlylvh, but with a lot of room for sloppy grammar. Most notably, this is the only level where given names are regularly used.

The formal register is used when the listener’s authority, power, or honor are lower than or equal to the speaker’s, and the two are not closely acquainted. It is very similar to the familiar level, except proper grammar is more closely observed, and accolades are preferred over given names.

The honorific register is used when the listener is above the speaker in authority, power, or honor. Proper grammar is strictly observed, and birth names are never used. In this level, the default SOV sentence order is more common, only being altered for particular emphasis.

Note that the registers are chosen based on the speaker’s relationship to the listener. In a conversation between a peasant and a king, the peasant would speak in the honorific register, while the king would use the formal register. When speaking to a group of mixed or unknown status, use the highest appropriate register.

The familiar register can sometimes override the honorific register. If the king and peasant were good friends, either of them might use the familiar register, although manners would dictate that the king initiate its use.

Finally, the divine register is used exclusively for religious contexts, especially public prayers. It is identical to the honorific register, except no reference to the listener (i.e., the deity) is ever spoken, be it a name, title, or pronoun.

Samples

Lytre vu Drylle

The “Child’s Welcome” was first spoken by Queen Naactres to Vreith Nightstorm. It has since become a tradition to recite this passage to all newborn Nacdrel.

Note in the last line how free word order is used to create a poetic symmetry, emphasizing and linking the verbs ⟨mourn⟩ and ⟨heal⟩.

Ziyr mathuzyn drylaa: thyr zutyzaanach.
Know this, child: you are not alone.
Uvadhaa thyr nuthyzan; naa nuthyzan zhyri nvu zhyri azyzaan lu Azzhulanai-zhym, Naa uvadhyzan vu zytanai.
Grief consumes you; it consumes us all; for were were born of our Mother; who grieves without end.
Uvadhyzan zhii l’yldre yl l’yldre zhii avnyzan.
We mourn together; and together we heal.

Hychre vu Nyzachymre

Tradition asserts that when the slain god Nezachim had recovered enough power to once again influence the world, certain individuals of a particularly sensative nature “heard” a terrible voice. Their reports coalesced into the “Curse of Nezachim”, the words spoken by the evil prince as he began his war against all living things.

Lu thralavtre-zai vu mazmre-zhe mutuviin zvyrdryvtyri-zai vu Zvyrielle, luvazyri-zai vu Luvielre lu azurzavtre-zai vu tzynre-zhe.
Make Zviriel’s currents the bearer of my plague; Luviel’s springs the source of my venom.
Chashii-zai vu Vyrushymre nuthyvaan vrytyri-nym syt Raicalymaa racyvaan usyrym-nym.
Verushim’s flames shall devour their flesh; and Raicalim shall bury their bones.
Shynlylvhyri-nym dlynuvyn Azdhavaa vu darthanai!
Hear their cries; loveless Father!
Azzhulaa chazuyr ucluvyn, thaa nyr cytyzaan vu nanym!
Treacherous Mother; see to what thou hast subjected them!
Thuu dhavusyr-thym zutai nlysyzaan uvn naa ryvyr-zai vu drylusyri-thym truvhyvaan lu shynadhavtre vu zytanai.
Thou casteth down thy firstborn; now he shall drag the rest of thy children into eternal anguish.
Vyzcyri-nym drylyvan drylusam-zhe, curnyri-nym hydhyvaan drylusam-zhe.
Their entrails shall be the playthings of my children; their skin my offspring’s cloaks.
Syt zulre-nym…zulyri-nym zhaa ryzyvaan, drythzulyrym-zai umvazhi, nii vyzcyvaan vu thyvtru dhu zytanai vu drylli.
And their souls…their souls shall be my trophies; the blackened ghosts that come for thee when everyone else is dead.

Tryztre vu Vlaedym-zai vu Zytrysse

The “Oath of the Knights of Zetres” is taken by new recruits of that organization, and serves as the central element in their initiation ceremony.

Note the prepositional phrase “under this moonlight” in the first line. It should technically be placed after the verb ⟨tryztyzan⟩, but it is instead placed closer to the beginning of the sentence for emphasis. This is allowed in poetic language because the meaning is still clear; whether the phrase modifies the action or the speaker makes no significant difference.

Also note that, due to Nactlylvh’s reduced prepositional inventory compared to English, there is no distinction between “in” and “under”; the form ⟨lu⟩ + locative case is used for both.

Zhaa lu lurlaesre-zie v’ucle-ne tryztyzan thralynyr-zhe vu dhrulavtre-zai vu Zytrysse.
Under this moonlight of Her gaze, I swear to bear the will of Zetres.
Syctyr-zai vu zytre zhaa dhryzyvan, nyvuzyrym-zai vhylyvan dhu zytavtre-nym syt nuarazhi avnyr-nym.
I will honor the sanctity of death by guarding the innocent until their end, and guarding their rest afterward.
Tzavzhulyr-zai zhaa vhylyvan, zhulusre yl lylvhuzre zutai vu Zytrysse.
I will defend the queen, who is Zetres’ first daughter and prophetess.
Azyr-zhe zhaa zylmyvan vu ziavtre syt zhyr ziaa yldyvan dhu truvhanavtre Zytrysaa zhyr l’uthavtre.
For this I give my life, and by this I shall be bound until Zetres gathers me home.

Sample Sentences

Zhaa mathyvaan vu thyvtre lylvhyr-zie vu nacdrylli: nactlylvhre.
I will teach you the language of the Nacdrel: Nactlylvh.
Zhaa nactlylvhyzan.
I speak Nactlylvh.
Naa vhluryr-zai tazyzaan lu vhlusavtre-ne syt nuzyzaan.
She raised the flower to her nose and smiled.
Naa zylmyzaan lu nyvtre zvathyr.
She gave him a sword.
Dhavaar-zhe myrcyzaan dhu zlytre-zai.
My brother hid himself during the battle.
Nutryzan zhaa thyr.
I love you.
Umvaa zhianyzan vyztyr-thi, lurlaesaa zulyr-thi.
Darkness forms your body; moonlight your spirit.
Czharyr-zai, nyr dhavaa-zai mvundyzaan, zhaa nuthyzaan.
I ate the fish that the man caught.
Zhuu lytyzaan drylyr vu nactre.
We met a child of the night.
Dhavaa-zie azdhavyr-zhe zytyzaan.
This man killed my father.
Zytyr c’zhytyr ytryzan uv ytryzanach darclytyr?
What is death but reunion?

Lexicon

This lexicon is organized alphabetically according to English conventions. Nouns are given in the singular locative case, and verbs are given in the infinitive.

a
interjection
I see; mm-hm; oh?; ah
adysadhazhi
descriptive
huge; enormous; gigantic
adysadhre
noun
hugeness; enormity
adysan
verb
to grow in size or volume
adysazhi
descriptive
big; large
adysre
noun
bigness; largeness
alyndadhazhi
descriptive
extremely long (spatial)
alyndadhre
noun
extreme longness (spatial)
alyndan
verb
to lengthen (spatial)
alyndazhi
descriptive
long (spatial)
alyndre
noun
longness (spatial)
alythan
verb
to stand
alythazhi
descriptive
upright; standing; erect
alythre
noun
upright, erect, or standing posture
arcan
verb
to perfect
arcazhi
descriptive
perfect
arcre
noun
perfection; paragon; ideal
arcuyr
descriptive
perfecting
as
number
six
athvan
verb
to suppress emotion; to express indifference
athvazhi
descriptive
apathetic; indifferent; dispassionate
athvre
noun
apathy; indifference; dispassion
athvuyr
descriptive
uninteresting; boring; insignificant; sedative; suppressive
avaztadhazhi
descriptive
extremely wide, fat, or broad
avaztadhre
noun
extreme wideness, fatness, or broadness
avaztan
verb
to widen; to fatten; to broaden; to grow in width
avaztazhi
descriptive
wide; fat; broad
avaztre
noun
wideness; fatness; broadness
aveu
interjection
pardon me, but; hold on; excuse me; hey, listen!
avnan
verb
to rest; to heal; to recuperate
avnazhi
descriptive
rested; healed; recuperated
avne
noun
rest; healing; recuperation
avnnynre
noun
hospital
avnuyr
descriptive
restful; healing; recuperative
avnuzre
noun
doctor; healer
azan
verb
to be alive; to give life; to give birth; to be born; to begin; to become conscious for the first time
azazhi
descriptive
alive; vivacious; awake; conscious
azcadhazhi
descriptive
spherical
azcadhre
noun
sphere
azcazhi
descriptive
round; circular
azcre
noun
circle; ring; roundness
azdhavre
noun
father
azdrylan
verb
to parent; to birth or raise a child
azdrylle
noun
parent
azre
noun
life; birth; beginning; wakefulness; consciousness
Azrymme
noun
god of life
azsvulcre
noun
womb; egg
azuyr
descriptive
vital; necessary for life; life-sustaining
azuzre
noun
life-giver; source; origin
azydadhazhi
descriptive
extremely tall or deep
azydadhre
noun
extreme tallness or deepness
azydan
verb
to grow in height or depth; to deepen
azydazhi
descriptive
tall; deep
azydre
noun
tallness; deepness
azzhulre
noun
mother
cavlan
verb
to disorder; to disorganize; to break the law
cavlazhi
descriptive
chaotic; disordered; lawless
cavle
noun
chaos; disorder; lawlessness
cavuyl
descriptive
disordering; unlawful; criminal
cha
interjection
oh no!; ew; grr; uh-uh; aw man
chantan
verb
to cast magic
chantazhi
descriptive
imbued with magic
chantre
noun
magic; sorcery
chantuyr
descriptive
generates or imbues with magic
chantuzre
noun
magician; sorcerer
chantytre
noun
magic spell
chashadhan
verb
to explode; to erupt
chashadhre
noun
inferno; fiery explosion; eruption
chashan
verb
to set on fire; to burn; to cook; to make or become orange
chashazhi
descriptive
fiery; aflame; orange or yellow; cooked; burnt
chashnynre
noun
kitchen
chashre
noun
fire; orange or yellow color
chashsvulcre
noun
fireplace; oven; stove; furnace
chashusre
noun
candle; small flame
chat
number
four
chatan
verb
to slap; to clap
chatre
noun
hand; quartet
chaturnan
verb
to bend or rotate the wrist
chaturnre
noun
wrist
chazan
verb
to betray; to commit treason; to mistrust; to be unfaithful; to be unreliable; to be inaccurate
chazazhi
descriptive
untrustworthy; unreliable
chazre
noun
betrayal; treachery; treason; distrust; suspicion; inaccuracy
chazuyr
descriptive
treacherous; treasonous; unfaithful; untrustworthy; unreliable; inaccurate
chazuzre
noun
traitor; betrayer
chysman
verb
to color
chysmazhi
descriptive
colorful; colored
chysmre
noun
color; hue
crucce
noun
frog; toad
crusan
verb
to make or become crescent; to collapse; to drain to less than half full; to move leftward
crusazhi
descriptive
crescent; concave; less than half full; left-handed
crusse
noun
crescent moon; concavity; left-hand side
cruvan
verb
to corrupt; to contaminate; to violate
cruvazhi
descriptive
corrupted; contaminated; violated
cruvuyr
descriptive
corrupting; contaminating; violating
cruvuzre
noun
contaminant; violator
cruvve
noun
corruption; contamination; unholiness; violation
crymme
noun
milk; cream
crysan
verb
to freeze; to encase or coat in ice; to make or become a pale blue-cyan color
crysazhi
descriptive
frozen; encased in ice; icy; pale blue-cyan
crysse
noun
ice; pale color between blue and cyan
cryvan
verb
to own; to posess; to have; to keep; to hold
cryvazhi
descriptive
owned; possessed; kept; held
cryvuyr
descriptive
wealthy; rich
cryvve
noun
ownership; possession; property; wealth; asset
cthanazhi
descriptive
responsible; guilty
cthanre
noun
responsibility; blame; guilt
cthanuzre
noun
one responsible; guilty one
curnre
noun
skin; flesh; sense of touch
cytan
verb
to do
cytre
noun
action; verb
cyvhre
noun
cow; buffalo
cyztan
verb
to name; to identify; to call (a name)
cyztazhi
descriptive
named; identified; called (a name)
cyztlytan
verb
to introduce
cyztlytre
noun
introduction
cyztre
noun
name; identity
cyztuyr
descriptive
naming; identifying
cyztuzre
noun
namer; identifyer
czharan
verb
to swim
czharre
noun
fish
darcan
verb
to reflect; to repeat; to duplicate; to copy
darcazan
verb
to resurrect; to resuscitate; to wake; to regain consciousness
darcazhi
descriptive
reflected; repeated; again
darcazre
noun
resurrection
darclytan
verb
to reunite; to reconvene; to meet again
darclytre
noun
reunion
darcre
noun
reflection; repetition; twin; duplicate; copy
darcuyr
descriptive
reflecting; repeating
darcuzre
noun
mirror; reflector; repeater; duplicator; copier
darthan
verb
to care for; to empathize with; to love
darthazhi
descriptive
cared for; loved
darthre
noun
compassion; empathy; affection; brotherly love
darthurzan
verb
to befriend
darthurzuyr
descriptive
friendly
darthuyr
descriptive
caring; compassionate; empathetic; loving
darthuzre
noun
friend
das
conjunction
but not, except
dazhan
verb
to compare; to judge between; to measure
dazhre
noun
comparison
dhamdrylan
verb
to be a Dhamdrel
dhamdrylle
noun
race name, “Bat-Child”
dhamvre
noun
bat; any winged mammal
dhavadhre
noun
adult man; big brother
dhavazhi
descriptive
masculine; manly; brotherly
dhavre
noun
man; brother
dhavusre
noun
boy; son; little brother
dhrulan
verb
to will; to desire
dhrulazhi
descriptive
willful; stubborn
dhrulle
noun
will; volition; desire; wish
dhryman
verb
to twinkle; to sparkle
dhrymazhi
descriptive
starry; diamond-studded; bejeweled
dhrymme
noun
star; diamond; jewel; gemstone
dhrymnynre
noun
gemstone mine
dhrymuzre
noun
astronomer; jeweler
dhrymytre
noun
jewelry
dhryzadhan
verb
to inspire awe and terror
dhryzadhazhi
descriptive
simultaneously awed and terrified
dhryzadhre
noun
simultaneous awe and terror
dhryzan
verb
to respect; to honor
dhryzazhi
descriptive
respectful
dhryzze
noun
respect; honor
dhu
preposition
temporal preposition (e.g., during, before, after, etc.
dhuradhre
noun
boulder
dhuran
verb
to build with or carve from stone or brick
dhurazhi
descriptive
stony; rocky; made of stone or brick
dhurnynre
noun
quarry; mine
dhurre
noun
rock; stone; brick
dhurusse
noun
pebble
dhuruzze
noun
mason; stoneworker
dhynre
noun
country; land; realm
dlynan
verb
to hear; to listen
dlynre
noun
ear; sense of hearing
dlynuyr
descriptive
noisy; loud; audible
dlynuzre
noun
listener
dlynytre
noun
sound; noise
dracazhi
noun
canine
dracce
noun
wolf; dog
draechhe
noun
dragon; wyvern; any winged reptile
druchan
verb
to create and sustain as a deity; to parent
druchazhi
descriptive
divine; godly
druchhe
noun
deity; god
drudhan
verb
to work with or craft from wood
drudhazhi
descriptive
wooden
drudhhe
noun
wood
drudhuzre
noun
woodworker; carpenter
druvadhan
verb
to terrify
druvadhazhi
descriptive
terrified
druvadhre
noun
terror
druvadhuyr
descriptive
terrifying
druvan
verb
to scare; to frighten
druvazhi
descriptive
scared; afraid; fearful; frightened
druvlylvhan
verb
to scream in fear
druvlylvhre
noun
frightened scream
druvusan
verb
to creep out
druvusazhi
descriptive
nervous; uneasy; creeped out
druvusse
noun
nervousness; unease; creepiness
druvusuyr
descriptive
creepy
druvuyr
descriptive
scary; frightening
druvve
noun
fear; fright
dryladhre
noun
adult; big sibling
drylle
noun
person; sibling; child
drylusan
verb
to play
drylusazhi
descriptive
childish; playful
drylusre
noun
young child; baby; little sibling
drylusytre
noun
toy
drythadhan
verb
to horrify
drythadhazhi
descriptive
horrified
drythadhre
noun
horror; abhorrence
drythadhuyr
descriptive
horrifying; horrific; abhorrent
drythan
verb
to disturb; to disgust
drythazhi
descriptive
disturbed; disgusted
drythhe
noun
disturbance; disgust
drythusan
verb
to disconcert
drythusazhi
descriptive
uncomfortable
drythusre
noun
discomfort
drythusuyr
descriptive
disconcerting
drythuyr
descriptive
disturbing; disgusting
dryvtan
verb
to move; to act
dryvtazhi
descriptive
mobile; active
dryvtre
noun
motion; movement; activity
dryzan
verb
to practice or display physical skill or dexterity
dryzazhi
descriptive
dexterous; physically skilled
dryzze
noun
dexterity; physical skill
du
conjunction
however; but
dul
number
two
dulre
noun
pair; duo; couple
duman
verb
to choose; to decide
dumazhi
descriptive
chosen; decided; fated; doomed; destined
dumre
noun
choice; decision; fate; doom; destiny
dumuyr
descriptive
decisive
durre
noun
upper arm; shoulder
dururnan
verb
to bend or rotate the shoulder joint
dururnre
noun
shoulder joint
duthan
verb
to come before; to preceed; to move backward in time
duthazhi
descriptive
previous; old; historic; backward in time
duthdrylazhi
descriptive
ancestral
duthdrylle
noun
ancestor
duthlasre
noun
last month
duthnactre
noun
yesterday; last night
duthnudhre
noun
last year
duthre
noun
past; previous thing; predecessor
duthylvre
noun
yesterday morning
dvusan
verb
to dry; to evaporate; to thirst; to dehydrate
dvusazhi
descriptive
dry; dehydrated; thirsty
dvusre
noun
dryness; desert; thirst; dehydration; evaporation
dvusuyr
descriptive
drying; dehydrating
dvuthre
noun
moth; butterfly
dylvre
noun
chest; upper back; torso
dylvurnan
verb
to bend or twist at the waist
dylvurnre
noun
waist, particularly the joints of the spine immediately below the ribcage
dysre
noun
size; volume
dyvan
verb
to weaken; to give way
dyvazhi
descriptive
weak; fragile; delicate
dyvre
noun
weakness; fragility
dzynan
verb
to operate a machine or device; to engineer; to mechanize; to motorize
dzynazhi
descriptive
mechanical; technological; motorized; engineered
dzynre
noun
engine; device; motor; machine; technology; mechanism
dzynuzre
noun
engineer; mechanic; technician
ec
conjunction
exclusive or; either-or
en
number
seven
ere
interjection
huh?; pardon?; what?
esan
verb
to express emotion; to incite emotion
esazhi
descriptive
emotional; sensitive
esre
noun
emotion; feeling
ev
number
zero
evan
verb
to empty; to vanish; to disappear; to be absent; to obliviate; to destroy; to annihilate
evazhi
descriptive
empty; absent
evre
noun
new moon; nothingness; emptiness; absence; oblivion; annihilation; destruction
ez
number
five
hantadhan
verb
to crowd
hantadhre
noun
large group; crowd
hantan
verb
to accompany; to accessorize; to go with; to collect; to gather
hantazhi
descriptive
accompanied; accessorized; collected; gathered
hantazhi
descriptive
crowded
hantre
noun
companionship; company; accompaniment; accessory; small group; collection; gathering
hantuyr
descriptive
accompanying; accessorizing
havan
verb
to energize; to motivate; to encourage
havazhi
descriptive
energized; motivated; enterprising
havre
noun
energy; motivation; gumption; initiative; encouragement
havuyr
descriptive
energizing; motivating; encouraging
hazan
verb
to deny; to refute; to contradict; to negate
hazre
noun
no (answer to a question); denial; refutation; contradiction; negation
hurcre
noun
pig; hog; boar
hychan
verb
to curse; to hex; to bestow bad luck or misfortune
hychazhi
descriptive
cursed; hexed; unfortunate
hychre
noun
curse; hex; bad luck; misfortune; malediction
hydhan
verb
to wear; to clothe; to dress
hydhazhi
descriptive
clothed; dressed
hydhre
noun
cloak; clothing
hydhsvulcre
noun
wardrobe; closet; dresser
hydhuzre
noun
tailor; seamstress
hyshadhan
verb
to make or be silent
hyshadhazhi
descriptive
silent
hyshadhre
noun
silence
hyshan
verb
to make or be quiet
hyshazhi
descriptive
quiet
hyshlylvhan
verb
to whisper
hyshlylvhazhi
descriptive
whispered
hyshlylvhre
noun
whisper
hyshlylvhuyr
descriptive
whispering
hyshre
noun
quietude
ithlan
verb
wield a bow and arrow
ithle
noun
bow (and arrow)
ithluzre
noun
archer
iztan
verb
to distance; to separate; to create space between
iztazhi
descriptive
distant; far away; separated
iztre
noun
distance; margin; interval (spatial); separation
laesadhazhi
descriptive
overwhelmingly bright; pure white
laesadhre
noun
overwhelming brightness; pure white color
laesan
noun
to brighten; to illuminate; to lighten; to whiten
laesazhi
descriptive
bright; light; white
laesre
noun
light; brightness; white color
laesuyr
noun
illuminating; brightening; lightening; whitening
laesuzze
noun
lamp; torch; light; illuminator
laesytre
noun
ray or beam of light
lasan
verb
to blink
lasre
noun
eyelid; month
lu
preposition
locational preposition (e.g., in, to, from, etc.)
ludan
verb
to tap one’s foot; to walk
luddhurre
noun
foundation; cornerstone
ludre
noun
foot
ludurnan
verb
to bend, twist, or rotate the ankle
ludurnre
noun
ankle
lur
number
eight
lurlaesre
noun
moonlight
lurre
noun
moon
lurzan
verb
to lie; to deceive; to fake
lurzazhi
descriptive
fake; false
lurzre
noun
lie; falsehood; deception; fakery; dishonesty
lurzuyr
descriptive
deceptive; deceitful; dishonest
lurzuzre
noun
liar; faker; deceiver; dishonest person
luthan
verb
to drain, to sap, to empty
luthazhi
descriptive
drained, lethargic, inert, empty
luthre
noun
drainage, lethargy, inertia, emptiness
luvan
verb
wetten; moisten; liquify
luvazhi
descriptive
wet; moist
luvdryvte
noun
water current
luvnynadhre
noun
sea; ocean
luvnynre
noun
pond; lake
luvnynusre
noun
puddle
luvre
noun
water; liquid; moisture
luvvuchan
verb
to sail; to drive, ride, or travel by boat or submarine
luvvuchre
noun
boat; ship; submarine
luvvuchuzre
noun
sailor
luvytre
noun
drop of water
lylvhadhan
verb
to yell; to shout; to speak loudly or brashly
lylvhadhre
noun
shout; big voice; brash voice
lylvhan
verb
to speak; to tell; to say; to communicate
lylvhmuctan
verb
to lick; to taste
lylvhmuctre
noun
tongue; sense of taste
lylvhmuctytre
noun
flavor; taste
lylvhre
noun
mouth; jaw; chin; cheek; speech; voice; language
lylvhurnan
verb
to open or close the mouth; to rotate the jaw joint
lylvhurnre
noun
jaw joint
lylvhusan
verb
to speak gently or timidly
lylvhusre
noun
small voice; timid voice
lylvhuyr
descriptive
talkative; wordy
lylvhuzre
noun
speaker
lylvhytre
noun
spoken word
lyndluvre
noun
river
lyndluvusre
noun
stream; creek; brook
lyndre
noun
length (spatial)
lyrmre
noun
snake; wyrm
lysan
verb
to make or be still, to hold in place, to stop
lysazhi
descriptive
still, motionless
lysre
noun
stillness
lytan
verb
to meet; to socialize; to fellowship; to converge
lythan
verb
to assume a posture, position, or stance
lythazhi
descriptive
posed; poised
lythre
noun
pose; poise; posture; stance
lytre
noun
meeting; socialization; fellowship; society; convergence
maclylvhan
verb
to scream or shout in surprise
maclylvhre
noun
cry or shout of surprise
macvadhan
verb
to panic
macvadhazhi
descriptive
panicked; hysterical
macvadhre
noun
panic; hysteria
macvadhuyr
descriptive
panic-inducing
macvan
verb
to shock; to surprise; to astonish; to frighten; to startle
macvazhi
descriptive
shocked; surprised; astonished; frightened; startled
macvre
noun
shock; surprise; astonishment; fear
macvusan
verb
to astonish; to surprise
macvusazhi
descriptive
astonished; surprised
macvusre
noun
astonishment; surprise
macvusuyr
descriptive
astonishing; surprising
macvuyr
descriptive
shocking; surprising; astonishing; frightening; startling
macvuzre
noun
shocker; frightener; one who surprises or astonishes
mathan
verb
to know; to teach; to learn
mathazhi
descriptive
knowledgeable
mathnynre
noun
school
mathre
noun
knowledge
mathuzre
noun
teacher
matre
noun
mouse; rat
mazhan
verb
to move forward; to move toward the front
mazhre
noun
front
mazman
verb
to make or become sick or ill; to make or become a green-yellow color
mazmazhi
descriptive
sick; ill; diseased; pale yellow-green
mazme
noun
sickness; disease; illness; pale color between green and yellow
mazmuyr
descriptive
sickening
mrazan
verb
to practice or display cognitive skill or intelligence; to think through; to outsmart
mrazazhi
descriptive
intelligent; smart; clever; cognitively skilled
mrazze
noun
intellect; intelligence; cognitive skill
muctan
verb
to point; to poke; to scratch; to maul
muctre
noun
digit; finger; toe; fingernail; toenail; claw; talon; ability to point; ability to scratch; ability to maul
mucturnan
verb
to bend the knuckle
mucturnre
noun
knuckle
murdazhi
descriptive
of this world
murdre
noun
world; planet
murtadhan
verb
to last or continue forever; to live forever
murtadhazhi
descriptive
eternal; unending; immeasurable; immortal; permanent
murtadhre
noun
eternity; forever; immortality; permanence
murtan
verb
to live; to age; to wait; to continue; to measure
murtazhi
descriptive
old; aged; patient; continuous; long (time)
murthre
noun
worm; caterpillar; slug; snail; maggot
murtnynre
noun
house (building)
murtre
noun
time; age; measurement; continuation; duration
murtusan
verb
to last or continue a short time
murtusazhi
descriptive
momentary; brief; temporary; short (time)
murtusre
noun
moment; short duration
murtuzre
noun
clock; guage; scale; ruler
murvan
verb
to do good deeds; to be righteous
murvlytan
verb
to say hello; to welcome
murvlytre
noun
hello; welcome (as a greeting)
murvlytuyr
descriptive
welcoming; inviting
murvre
noun
goodness; righteousness
murvtyrnan
verb
to say goodbye or farewell
murvtyrnre
noun
goodbye; farewell
murvuyr
descriptive
good; righteous
murvuzre
noun
one who does good deeds; a righteous person
murvytre
noun
good deed or event
mutan
verb
to transform; to change; to mutate; to transition; to alter
mutazhi
descriptive
transformed; changed; mutant; transitioned; altered
mutre
noun
transformation; change; mutation; transition; alteration
mutuyr
descriptive
transforming; changing; mutating; transitioning; altering
mvadhan
verb
to destroy light
mvadhre
noun
anti-light; dark matter
mve
interjection
that’s that; the end; so there
mvundan
verb
to hunt; to pursue; to stalk; to prey upon; to search; to seek
mvundazhi
descriptive
hunted; pursued; stalked; preyed upon; chased; sought after
mvundre
noun
hunt; pursuit; predation; search
mvundulre
noun
prey; game; quarry
mvunduyr
descriptive
hunting; pursuing; stalking; predatory; searching
mvunduzre
noun
hunter; pursuer; stalker; predator; seeker
mvusan
verb
to cast a shadow
mvusazhi
descriptive
shadowed; shadowy
mvusre
noun
shadow
mvusuzre
noun
one who casts a shadow
myrcan
verb
to eclipse; to occlude; to cover; to hide; to mask; to veil
myrcazhi
descriptive
eclipsed; occluded; covered; hidden; veiled; masked
myrcre
noun
eclipse; occlusion; covering; mask; veil; curtain
myrcuyr
descriptive
eclipsing; occluding; covering; hiding; veiling; masking
mythan
verb
to frost over; to make or become a pale green-cyan color
mythazhi
descriptive
frosty; frosted; pale green-cyan
mythre
noun
frost; pale color between green and cyan
myztadhan
verb
to investigate
myztadhazhi
descriptive
mysterious
myztadhre
noun
mystery
myztadhuyr
descriptive
investigative
myztadhuzre
noun
investigator; detective
myztadhytre
noun
solution to a mystery
myztan
verb
to ask; to inquire; to question
myztre
noun
question; inquiry
myztusan
verb
to ask a rhetorical question; to pose a riddle; to ask a silly question
myztusazhi
descriptive
rhetorical (question); silly or unnecessary (question)
myztusre
noun
rhetorical question; riddle; silly question
myztusuzre
noun
one who asks a rhetorical question; riddler; one who asks silly questions
myztusytre
noun
answer to a rhetorical question; solution to a riddle
myztuyr
descriptive
curious; inquisitive
myztuzre
noun
one who asks a question; questionnaire; survey; quiz; test
myztytre
noun
answer to a question
mzaran
verb
to trade; to exchange; to purchase; to buy
mzarnynre
noun
market; shop; store
mzarre
noun
trade; exchange; purchase
mzarsvulcre
noun
wallet; purse
mzaruzze
noun
buyer; customer
mzarytre
noun
money
nacdrylan
verb
to be a Nacdrel
nacdrylle
noun
race name, “Night-Child”
nactadhre
noun
dead of night; darkest part of the night
nactlylvhan
verb
to speak Nactlylvh
nactlylvhre
noun
language name, “Night-Speech”
nactre
noun
nighttime; calendar day
nactusazhi
descriptive
dusky; purple
nactusre
noun
dusk; purple color
nadan
verb
to fall; to descend; to move downward
nadazhi
descriptive
bottom; lower; shorter; downward
nadre
noun
bottom; minimum; nadir
nadre-ne
noun
summer
nathadhre
noun
the unknowable; impossibility of knowledge
nathadhuyr
descriptive
unknowable
nathan
verb
to not know; to be ignorant
nathazhi
descriptive
ignorant; knowledge-less
nathre
noun
the unknown; lack of knowledge; ignorance
nathulre
noun
one who doesn’t know; an ignorant person
nathuyr
descriptive
unknown
ne
determiner
his; hers; its
nre
noun
he; him; himself; she; her; herself; it; itself
nuaran
verb
to come after; to proceed; to move forward in time
nuarazhi
descriptive
futuristic; next; new; afterward; forward in time
nuardrylle
noun
descendant
nuarlasre
noun
next month
nuarnactre
noun
tomorrow; tomorrow night
nuarnudhre
noun
next year
nuarre
noun
future; next thing; successor
nuarylvre
noun
tomorrow morning
nudhan
verb
to nod; to shake one’s head
nudhre
noun
head; skull; year
nudhurnan
verb
to turn or tilt the head
nudhurnre
noun
joint that connects the neck to the head
nusazhi
descriptive
stolen; taken; seized
nusvan
verb
to steal; to take; to seize
nusvre
noun
theft; robbery; seizure
nusvuzre
noun
theif; robber; bandit
nutdhavre
noun
boyfriend; male lover
nutdrylle
noun
lover
nuthan
verb
to eat; to ingest; to digest; to consume
nuthnynre
noun
dining room; restaurant
nuthre
noun
food; fuel
nutran
verb
to love; to woo; to seduce
nutrazhi
descriptive
romantic; loved; precious; beloved
nutre
noun
romance; love; darling; term of endearment
nutruyr
descriptive
seductive; loving
nutzhulre
noun
girlfriend; female lover
nuzadhan
verb
to rejoice
nuzadhazhi
descriptive
joyful
nuzadhre
noun
joy
nuzadhuyr
descriptive
causes joy
nuzan
verb
to be happy; to smile; to grin
nuzazhi
descriptive
happy
nuzre
noun
happiness
nuzusan
verb
to be content
nuzusazhi
descriptive
content
nuzusre
noun
contentment
nuzusuyr
descriptive
causes contentment
nuzuyr
descriptive
causes happiness
nvu
conjunction
because; as a result of
nvyran
verb
to count; to number; to quantify; to measure; to weigh; to calculate; to compute
nvyrdzynre
noun
calculator; computer
nvyrre
noun
number; amount; quantity
nvyruzze
noun
counter (one who counts); mathematician
nycre
noun
fruit
nynan
verb
to be in a place; to locate
nynre
noun
place; location
nytre
noun
ant; spider; bug; insect
nyvazhi
descriptive
innocent; blameless; naive
nyvre
noun
innocence; naivety
nyvuzre
noun
innocent one; blameless one; naive one
Nyzachymre
noun
god of evil
nyzan
verb
to do or be evil
nyzcryvan
verb
to be greedy, miserly, or possessive
nyzcryvuyr
descriptive
greedy; miserly; possessive
nyzcryvve
noun
greed
nyzre
noun
evil; badness; unrighteousness
nyzusan
verb
to annoy; to bother; to make mischief
nyzusazhi
descriptive
annoyed; bothered
nyzusre
noun
annoyance; mischief
nyzusuyr
descriptive
annoying; bothersome; mischievous; naughty
nyzusuzre
noun
one who annoys; mischief-maker
nyzuyr
descriptive
evil; bad; unrighteous
nyzuzre
noun
evildoer; an unrighteous or bad person
nyzytre
noun
evil act or event; sin
racan
verb
to bury; to plant; to sow
racazhi
descriptive
earthen; dirty
racce
noun
earth; ground; dirt
raizan
verb
to provide a purpose or reason; to motivate; to strive toward a goal
raizazhi
descriptive
purposeful; motivated; driven
raizuyr
descriptive
motivating; driving; causing
raizvhaezan
verb
to go on a journey; to take a trip; to undertake a quest or mission
raizvhaezre
noun
journey; trip; quest; mission
raizze
noun
purpose; reason; cause; motivation; goal; objective
ravtre
noun
hawk; eagle; falcon; owl; bird of prey
reu
interjection
by the way; oh hey, so; anyway
ryldan
verb
to beautify
ryldazhi
descriptive
beautiful
ryldre
noun
beauty
ryvan
verb
to collect; to gather; to harvest; to reap
ryvtadhan
verb
to infuriate; enrage
ryvtadhazhi
descriptive
furious; enraged
ryvtadhre
noun
fury; rage
ryvtadhuyr
descriptive
infuriating; enraging
ryvtan
verb
to anger
ryvtazhi
descriptive
angry
ryvtlylvhan
verb
to scream or shout in anger
ryvtlylvhre
noun
angry scream or yell
ryvtre
noun
anger
ryvtusan
verb
to disgruntle; to annoy
ryvtusazhi
descriptive
disgruntled; annoyed
ryvtusre
noun
disgruntlement; annoyance
ryvtusuyr
descriptive
annoying
ryvtuyr
descriptive
angering
ryvve
noun
gathering; harvest; collection
sa
interjection
I know, right?; yeah!; u-huh; OK
santazhi
descriptive
loved sacrificially
santran
verb
to love sacrificially; to love as a parent or creator
santre
noun
sacrificial love; parental love; selfless love
santruzre
noun
one who loves sacrificially
santuyr
descriptive
sacrificially loving
savan
verb
to affirm; to confirm; to validate
savre
noun
yes; affirmation; confirmation; validation
shantan
verb
to sing; to whistle; to hum; to make music
shantazhi
descriptive
musical
shantre
noun
song; music
shantuzre
noun
singer; musician
shymrazhi
descriptive
golden
shymre
noun
gold
shynadhan
verb
to torment; to torture
shynadhre
noun
torment; agony; torture
shynan
verb
to hurt
shynlylvhan
verb
to cry out in pain;
shynlylvhre
noun
cry of pain; pained scream
shynre
noun
pain
shynusan
verb
to irritate; to itch
shynusre
noun
irritation; itch
slyllaesre
noun
sunlight
slylre
noun
sun
sunvhan
verb
to assume; to suppose; to infer; to guess
sunvhazhi
descriptive
assumed; supposed; inferred; guessed
sunvhre
noun
assumption; supposition; inference; bias; guess
sunvhuyr
descriptive
assuming; biased
svanre
noun
duck; goose; swan; puffin; gull; waterfowl
svulcan
verb
to contain; to wrap; to surround; to encircle
svulcazhi
descriptive
contained; wrapped; surrounded; encircled
svulcre
noun
container; wrapper; surrounding; environment; context
svulcuyr
descriptive
containing; wrapping; surrounding; encircling
svyctan
verb
to repulse; to push; to cast; to banish; to send; to repel; to expel; to exile; to go; to leave; to depart
svyctazhi
descriptive
repulsed; pushed; cast out; banished; sent; repelled; expelled; exiled; gone; left
svyctre
noun
repulsion; banishment; expulsion; exile; departure
svyctuyr
descriptive
repulsive; pushing; casting; banishing; sending; repelling; expelling; exiling
svynan
verb
to bleed; to redden
svynazhi
descriptive
bloody; red or magenta
svynre
noun
blood; bodily fluid; red or magenta color
sycan
verb
to wield a scythe, halberd, or glaive
sycre
noun
scythe; halberd; glaive
syctan
verb
to reserve; to purify; to sanctify; to save; to set apart
syctazhi
descriptive
reserved; pure; holy; saved; virgin; set apart
syctre
noun
reservation; purity; sanctity; holiness; salvation; virginity
syctuyr
descriptive
purifying; sanctifying
syctuzre
noun
purifier; sanctifier; savior
sycusan
verb
to wield a sickle
sycusre
noun
sickle
sycuzre
noun
halberdier
sylvadhazhi
descriptive
forested; wooded
sylvadhnynre
noun
forest; woodland; woods
sylvadhre
noun
tree
sylvan
verb
to sprout; to grow; to make or become green
sylvazhi
descriptive
overgrown; green
sylvazsvulcre
noun
seed (of a plant)
sylvcurnre
noun
bark
sylvdurre
noun
branch
sylvludre
noun
root
sylvmuctre
noun
twig; stick
sylvnynre
noun
garden
sylvre
noun
plant; vegetation; green color
sylvtryzze
noun
leaf
sylvurnre
noun
split or fork in a branch
sylvusazhi
descriptive
grassy; mossy
sylvusnynre
noun
field; meadow; lawn
sylvusre
noun
grass; moss
sylvzhamvre
noun
stem; trunk; log
syt
conjunction
successive and; and then
syth
number
three
sythre
noun
trio; trinity; trifecta; triumvirate
thi
determiner
your; yours
thire
noun
you; yourself
thralan
verb
to carry; to hold; to bear; to support; to follow; to serve
thralazhi
descriptive
carried; held; born; supported; served; followed
thralle
noun
carrier; holder; bearer; support; supporter; follower; disciple; vassal; servant; slave
thraluyr
descriptive
carrying; holding; bearing; supporting; serving; following
thralvan
verb
to move inward; to retract; to go inside
thralvre
noun
waist; hips; belly; stomach; lower back; groin; core; center
thralytan
verb
to handle; to grip; to hold by a handle
thralytre
noun
handle; hilt; grip
thulre
noun
thigh; upper leg; buttocks
thulurnan
verb
to raise, lower, or twist the thigh; to rotate the thigh joint
thulurnre
noun
thigh joint; hip
thvaenre
noun
whale; porpoise
thysnan
verb
straddle a boundary; make or become gray
thysnazhi
descriptive
gray
thysne
noun
twilight; border; gray color
truvhan
verb
to attract; to pull; to suck; to draw; to summon; to bring; to lure; to come; to approach
truvhazhi
descriptive
attracted, pulled, sucked; drawn; summoned; brought; lured
truvhhe
noun
attraction; suction; summons; lure
truvhuyr
descriptive
attractive; pulling; sucking; drawing; summoning; bringing; luring; alluring
tryzazhi
noun
hairy; furry; feathered
tryztan
verb
to trust; to be faithful; to rely on; to be accurate; to makr or fulfill an oath, promise, or vow
tryztazhi
descriptive
trustworthy; reliable
tryztre
noun
loyalty; faithfulness; fidelity; trust; reliability; accuracy; oath; promise; vow
tryzturzan
verb
to confide in someone
tryztuyr
descriptive
loyal; faithful; trustworthy; reliable; accurate
tryztuzre
noun
confidant
tryzze
noun
hair; fur; feather
tvycan
verb
to rot; to decay; to waste; to dispose of; to throw out
tvycazhi
descriptive
rotten; decayed; wasted
tvycnynre
noun
dump
tvycre
noun
rot; decay; garbage; waste; trash
tvycsvulcre
noun
trash bin; garbage can
tvycuyr
descriptive
wasteful
tvycuzre
noun
waster
tvylan
verb
to climb a mountain
tvylazhi
descriptive
mountainous
tvylrantre
noun
mountain range
tvylre
noun
mountain
tynvan
verb
to fence in; to limit; to stop; to contain; to curb; to remain within
tynvazhi
descriptive
bounded; fenced in; limited; stopped; contained
tynvre
noun
boundary; fence; railing; wall; limit
tynvuyr
descriptive
bounding; limiting; containing
tyrnan
verb
to part; to diverge; to scatter
tyrnre
noun
parting; divergence; scattering
tzavan
verb
to rule; to reign; to govern
tzavazhi
descriptive
royal; sovereign
tzavdhavre
noun
king
tzavnynre
noun
palace
tzavre
noun
monarchy; royalty; government; sovereignty
tzavuzre
noun
monarch; ruler
tzavytre
noun
crown; scepter
tzavzachan
verb
to inherit a throne
tzavzachre
noun
prince; princess
tzavzhulre
noun
queen
tzylan
verb
to snow
tzylazhi
descriptive
snowy
tzyllaesan
verb
to glow like snow under light (especially moonlight)
tzyllaesazhi
descriptive
glow like snow under light (especially moonlight)
tzyllaesre
noun
light (especially moonlight) reflected off snow
tzylre
noun
snow
tzynan
verb
to poison
tzynazhi
descriptive
poisoned
tzynre
noun
poison; venom; toxin
tzynuyr
descriptive
poisonous; venomous; toxic
u
interjection
and you?; well?; so?
uclan
verb
to see; to look
uclazhi
descriptive
observant; watchful
ucle
noun
eye; vision; sense of sight
uclytre
noun
view; appearance; aesthetic; vision; sight
ucuyl
descriptive
visible
udysan
verb
to shrink in size or volume
udysazhi
descriptive
small; little
udysre
noun
smallness; littleness
udysusazhi
descriptive
tiny; miniscule; microscopic
udysusre
noun
tinyness
ue
interjection
go on; u-huh; mm-hm
uilan
verb
to aid; to help; to assist; to benefit; to serve
uilre
noun
aid; assistance; benefit; service
uiluyr
descriptive
helpful; beneficial; assistive
uiluzre
noun
aide; helper; assistant; benefactor; servant
ulnre
noun
forearm; lower arm
ulnurnan
verb
to bend or straighten the elbow
ulnurnre
noun
elbow
ulyndan
verb
to shorten (spatial length); to shrink in spatial length
ulyndazhi
descriptive
short (spatial length)
ulyndre
noun
shortness (spatial length)
ulyndusazhi
descriptive
extremely short (spatial length)
ulyndusre
noun
extreme shortness (spatial length)
ulythan
verb
to recline; to lie
ulythazhi
descriptive
reclined; lying
ulythre
noun
reclined or lying posture
umsvynan
verb
to make or become brown, dark orange, or dark yellow
umsvynazhi
descriptive
stained with dark or old blood; brown; dark orange or yellow
umsvynre
noun
dark or old blood; brown color; dark orange or yellow color
umvadhan
verb
to darken completely, to completely blacken
umvadhazhi
descriptive
completely dark; pitch black
umvadhre
noun
absolute darkness
umvan
verb
to darken; to blacken
umvazhi
descriptive
dark; black
umvre
noun
darkness; blackness
umvusan
verb
to dim
umvusazhi
descriptive
dim
umvusre
noun
dimness
uran
verb
to deter, to cause woe, to harm, to hinder
urnan
verb
to bend a joint; to rotate around a point; to orbit
urnazhi
descriptive
jointed; hinged
urnre
noun
joint; hinge; axis; center of rotation
urre
noun
detriment, woe, harm, hindrance
uruyr
descriptive
detrimental, harmful, hindering
urvadhre
noun
thick smoke, mist, fog, or vapor
urvan
verb
to billow and writhe like vapor
urvazhi
descriptive
smoky; cloudy; foggy; misty; steamy; vaporous
urvre
noun
smoke; steam; fog; mist; vapor
urvusre
noun
thin smoke, mist, fog, or vapor
urvytadhre
noun
thunderhead
urvytre
noun
plume of smoke or steam; cloud
urvytusre
noun
wisp of smoke, steam, fog, or mist; small cloud
urzhan
verb
to work with or craft from metal
urzhazhi
descriptive
metal; metallic; iron; steel
urzhnynre
noun
forge; blacksmith
urzhre
noun
metal; iron; steel
urzhuzre
noun
metalworker; blacksmith
usan
verb
to remove or break a bone
usazhi
descriptive
bony
uscyvhre
noun
deer; carribou; moose
usrantazhi
descriptive
skeletal
usrantre
noun
skeleton
usre
noun
bone
ussvulcre
noun
coffin; sarcophagus; bed
uthre
noun
home; place of welcome, belonging, or comfort
uv
conjunction
if-then
uvadhan
verb
to grieve; to mourn
uvadhazhi
descriptive
grief-stricken; mournful
uvadhre
noun
grief; mourning
uvadhuyr
descriptive
grievous
uvan
verb
to sadden
uvazhi
descriptive
sad; sorrowful
uvaztan
verb
to thin; to narrow; to shrink in width
uvaztazhi
descriptive
thin; skinny; narrow
uvaztre
noun
thinness; skinnyness; narrowness
uvaztusazhi
descriptive
extremely thin, skinny, or narrow
uvaztusre
noun
extreme thinness, skinnyness, or narrowness
uvdan
verb
to move outward; to go outside
uvdazhi
descriptive
outer; outside; beyond
uvdre
noun
outside; that which lies beyond
uvdyvazhi
descriptive
extraterrestrial; alien (from outer space)
uvdyvre
noun
outer space; the void
uvdyvuchan
verb
to drive, ride, or travel by spaceship
uvdyvuchre
noun
spaceship
uvdyvuchuzre
noun
spaceship pilot
uvluvan
verb
to cry; to rain
uvluvazhi
descriptive
crying; rainy
uvluvre
noun
tears; rain
uvlylvhan
verb
to cry out in sadness; to wail; to sob; to lament
uvlylvhre
noun
cry of sadness; wail; sob; lamentation
uvn
conjunction
therefore; as a result; and so
uvre
noun
sadness; sorrow
uvusan
verb
to disappoint
uvusazhi
descriptive
disappointed
uvusre
noun
disappointment
uvusuyr
descriptive
disappointing
uvuyr
descriptive
saddening
uychadhan
verb
to multiply (mathematics)
uychadhre
noun
multiplication (mathematics)
uychan
verb
to increase; to grow; to improve; to upgrade; to add
uychre
noun
increase; growth; improvement; upgrade; addition
uychre-ne
noun
autumn; fall (season)
uynadhan
verb
to divide (mathematics)
uynadhre
noun
division (mathematics)
uynan
verb
to decrease; to reduce; to downgrade; to degrade; to subtract
uynre
noun
decrease; reduction; entropy; downgrade; degredation; subtraction
uynre-ne
noun
spring (season)
uyrdhan
verb
to write; to arrange or compose words
uyrdhazhi
descriptive
written
uyrdhdlynan
verb
to read
uyrdhdlynre
noun
reading; ability to read
uyrdhdlynuzre
noun
reader
uyrdhrantadhre
noun
tome; large book
uyrdhrantnynre
noun
library
uyrdhrantre
noun
book; literature; publication; any written material
uyrdhrantusre
noun
booklet; pamphlet; brochure
uyrdhre
noun
writing; written word; arrangement of words; literary composition
uyrdhuzre
noun
writer; author
uyrdhytre
noun
pen; pencil; stylus; any writing tool
uzydan
verb
to shrink in height or depth
uzydazhi
descriptive
short (height); shallow
uzydre
noun
shortness (height); shallowness
uzydusazhi
descriptive
extremely short (height) or shallow
uzydusre
noun
extreme shortness (height) or shallowness
vachan
verb
to depart, to go
vachre
noun
departure
vaztre
noun
width; thickness; breadth
vhaezan
verb
to guide; to follow a path; to employ a method
vhaezazhi
descriptive
guided
vhaezre
noun
way; path; road; trail; method; conduit
vhaezuyr
descriptive
guiding
vhaezuzre
noun
guide
vhaezytre
noun
guidepost; sign
vhantan
verb
to drink
vhantre
noun
drink
vhantsvulcre
noun
cup; goblet
vhlacre
noun
cat; feline
vhluran
verb
to blossom; to bloom; to flower
vhlurazhi
descriptive
flowery; covered in flowers
vhlurre
noun
flower
vhlusan
verb
to sniff; to smell
vhlusre
noun
nose; beak; snout; sense of smell
vhlusuyr
descriptive
smelly; odorous; pungent; fragrant
vhlusytre
noun
scent; odor; fragrance; smell
vhrusadhan
verb
to make or become freezing
vhrusadhazhi
descriptive
freezing, frigid, frozen
vhrusadhre
noun
freezing cold
vhrusan
verb
to make or be cold
vhrusazhi
descriptive
cold
vhrusse
noun
coldness
vhrususan
verb
to make or become cool
vhrususazhi
descriptive
cool, chilly
vhrususre
noun
coolness, chilliness
vhylan
verb
to protect; to guard; to defend
vhylazhi
descriptive
protected; guarded; defended
vhylnytre
noun
beetle
vhylre
noun
defense; fortress; castle
vhyluyr
descriptive
protective; defensive; guarding
vhyluzre
noun
guard; sentinel; defender; protector
vhylzalmre
noun
turtle; tortoise
vhynan
verb
to bite; to chew; to gnaw
vhynre
noun
tooth; fang; ability to chew; ability to bite
vhytan
verb
to influence; to exercise power; to affect; to have an effect
vhytazhi
descriptive
influenced; affected
vhytre
noun
influence; power; ability
vhytuyr
descriptive
influential; powerful; effective
vlaedan
verb
to champion or defend a cause; to wield a blade or weapon; to present an argument; to make a point (in a debate)
vlaedre
noun
champion; hero; knight; master of combat; noble blade; weapon; argument (point made in a debate)
vlaeduyr
descriptive
heroic; knightly; bladed; armed; weaponized
vlaerre
noun
neck; throat
vlaerurnan
verb
to bend the neck joint
vlaerurnre
noun
spinal joint at the base of the neck that connects the neck to the shoulders; neck joint
vlydan
verb
to ride a horse; to ride any animal
vlydre
noun
horse; pony; donkey; steed
vraesse
noun
rabbit; hare
vraethan
verb
to hope; to encourage
vraethazhi
descriptive
hopeful; hopefully; encouraged
vraethe
noun
hope; encouragement
vraethuyr
descriptive
encouraging
vraethuzre
noun
hope-bringer; encourager
vrushadhan
verb
to burn or make extremely hot
vrushadhazhi
descriptive
extremely hot, burning
vrushadhre
noun
burning heat
vrushan
verb
to heat
vrushazhi
descriptive
hot
vrushhe
noun
heat
vrushusan
verb
to warm
vrushusazhi
descriptive
warm
vrushusre
noun
warmth
vu
preposition
relational preposition (e.g. of, for, against, etc.)
vuchan
verb
to drive, ride, or travel by vehicle
vuchre
noun
cart; carriage; car; truck; automobile; vehicle
vuchuzre
noun
driver
vulcre
noun
bear (animal)
vultre
noun
chicken; turkey; pheasant
vurzan
verb
to strengthen; to reinforce; to empower; to force
vurzazhi
descriptive
strong; firm; forceful; powerful
vurzuyr
descriptive
strengthening; empowering
vuzre
noun
strength; firmness; force; power
vychan
verb
to move backward; to move toward the back
vychre
noun
back; rear
vyntan
verb
to arrive, to come, to approach
vyntre
noun
arrival, approach
vysan
verb
to make or become gibbous; to swell; to fill to more than half full; to move rightward
vysazhi
descriptive
gibbous; convex; more than half full; right-handed
vysre
noun
gibbous moon; convexity; right-hand side
vyzcan
verb
disembowel; dissect
vyzcre
noun
entrails; organs; guts
vyztre
noun
body; form; shape; figure
y
interjection
uh; um; hmm; er; erm
ydysazhi
descriptive
of medium size or volume
ydysre
noun
medium size; medium volume
yl
conjunction
unitive and
yldan
verb
to connect; to come together; to bind together; to fuse; to marry; to wed
yldazhi
descriptive
connected; together; bound together; fused; married; wedded
ylddhavre
noun
husband
ylddrylle
noun
spouse
yldre
noun
connection; togetherness; fusion; marriage; wedding
yldzhulre
noun
wife
ylvadhre
noun
middle of the day; brightest, hottest part of the day
ylvan
verb
to make or become daytime; to make or become blue
ylvazhi
descriptive
diurnal; blue
ylvre
noun
daytime; blue color
ylvusre
noun
dawn
ylyndazhi
descriptive
of medium length (spatial)
ylyndre
noun
medium length (spatial)
ylythan
verb
to sit
ylythazhi
descriptive
seated
ylythre
noun
seated posture
yndan
verb
to hunger; to be out of fuel
yndazhi
descriptive
hungry; empty; lacking
yndre
noun
hunger; emptiness; shortage; lack
yr
conjunction
inclusive or; and-or
yrsan
verb
to be full; to be content; to be satisfied
yrsazhi
descriptive
full; satisfied; content; plentiful; bountiful
yrsre
noun
fullness; satisfaction; plenty; bounty; contentment
ytran
verb
to be; to exist
ytrazhi
descriptive
existing; extant
ytre
noun
existence; state of being; something; presence
yvaztazhi
descriptive
of medium width, thickness, or breadth
yvaztre
noun
medium width; medium thickness; medium breadth
yvran
verb
to legislate; to regulate; to organize; to moderate; to balance
yvrazhi
descriptive
ordered; lawful; regulated; organized; moderate; balanced
yvre
noun
order; law; regulation; organization; moderation; balance
yvtran
verb
to exude a feeling; to create an ambience; to project an aura
yvtre
noun
ambience; air; presence; feeling; atmosphere; aura
yvtuyr
descriptive
atmospheric
yzhtan
verb
to disintegrate; to reduce to dust or ash
yzhtazhi
descriptive
dusty; ashen; sandy; grainy
yzhtre
noun
dust; ash; sand; speck; particle; grain (not food)
yzydazhi
descriptive
of medium height or depth
yzydre
noun
medium height; medium depth
zachan
verb
to inherit
zachre
noun
heir; inheritor
zaeran
verb
to master; to command; to outrank
zaerazhi
descriptive
mastered; commanded; outranked
zaerre
noun
mastery; command; rank
zaeruyr
descriptive
masterful; commanding; high-ranking
zaeruzze
noun
master; commander
zaetlasre
noun
this month
zaetnactre
noun
tonight; today
zaetnodhre
noun
this year
zaetre
noun
present (time); now; current thing; modernity
zai
determiner
the; that
zainynan
verb
to be there
zainynazhi
descriptive
being there
zainynre
noun
there
zalmre
noun
lizard; crocodile; alligator; newt; salamander
zare
noun
that; that one
zhaedan
verb
to animal-ize; to dehumanize; to act or make like an animal; to be wild
zhaedazhi
descriptive
animalistic; beastial; wild; feral; not a person; inhuman
zhaedre
noun
animal; beast; non-person
zhaeduyr
descriptive
animal-izing; dehumanizing; wild-making; feral-izing
zhamvan
verb
to kick; to run
zhamvre
noun
shin; lower leg; calf
zhamvurnan
verb
to bend or straighten the knee; to kneel
zhamvurnre
noun
knee
zhe
determiner
my; mine
zhianan
verb
to practice an art or craft; to plan; to strategize
zhianazhi
descriptive
artful; creative; planned; strategic
zhianre
noun
art; craft; plan; strategy
zhianusan
verb
to perform a technique; to execute a tactic
zhianusazhi
descriptive
technical; tactical
zhianusre
noun
technique; tactic
zhianusuzre
noun
tactician; technician
zhianuzre
noun
artist; craftsman; planner; strategist
zhra
conjunction
also; too
zhre
noun
I; me; myself
zhuladhre
noun
adult woman; big sister
zhulazhi
descriptive
feminine; womanly; sisterly
zhulre
noun
woman; sister
zhulusre
noun
girl; daughter; little sister
zhytan
verb
to objectify
zhytre
noun
thing; object; noun; “whatchimacallit”
zie
determiner
the; this
zienynan
verb
to be here
zienynazhi
descriptive
being here
zienynre
noun
here
zire
noun
this; this one
zlysan
verb
to cut; to slice; to separate; to sever; to amputate; to divorce
zlysazhi
descriptive
cut; sliced; separated; severed; amputated; divorced
zlysre
noun
cut; slice; separation; severance; amputation; divorce
zlysuzre
noun
common blade; cutter; slicer; separator
zlytadhre
noun
ball (dance); war
zlytadhuzre
noun
soldier; warrior
zlytan
verb
to dance; to fight; to interact
zlytre
noun
dance; fight; interaction
zlytuzre
noun
dancer; fighter
zraelan
verb
to tell the truth
zraelazhi
descriptive
honest; real
zraelle
noun
truth; reality; honesty
zraeluzre
noun
honest person
zulan
verb
to make or become cyan
zulazhi
descriptive
ghostly; spiritual; cyan
zulnusazhi
descriptive
necromantic
zulnusvan
verb
to commit evil necromancy
zulnusvre
noun
evil necromancy
zulnusvuzre
noun
evil necromancer
zulre
noun
ghost; spirit; soul; cyan color
zulyldan
verb
to perform good or neutral necromancy
zulyldre
noun
good or neutral necromancy
zulylduzre
noun
good or neutral necromancer
zut
number
one
zutan
verb
to leave alone; to abandon
zutazhi
descriptive
alone; lonely; solitary; abandoned
zutracre
noun
island
zutre
noun
loneliness; solitude; abandonment
zvacan
verb
to strike with lightning; to electrify, to charge with electricity, to electrocute
zvacazhi
descriptive
electrified, charged with electricity, electric
zvacre
noun
lightning; electricity, electrical charge
zvaran
verb
to fly
zvarre
noun
bird; songbird
zvathadhan
verb
to wield a greatsword
zvathadhre
noun
greatsword
zvathadhuzre
noun
greatswordsman
zvathan
verb
to wield a sword
zvathre
noun
sword
zvathsvulcre
noun
sheath; scabbard
zvathusan
verb
to wield a dagger
zvathusre
noun
dagger; knife
zvathusuzre
noun
knife fighter
zvathuzre
noun
swordsman
zvyradhan
verb
to storm
zvyradhazhi
descriptive
stormy
zvyradhre
noun
storm
zvyran
verb
to inflate
zvyrazhi
descriptive
airy; inflated
zvyrdryvtan
verb
to blow
zvyrdryvtazhi
descriptive
windy
zvyrdryvte
noun
wind; air current
zvyrnynre
noun
sky
zvyrre
noun
air
zvyrvuchan
verb
to drive, ride, or travel by airborne vehicle
zvyrvuchre
noun
any flying vehicle; airship; airplane; blimp; helicopter
zvyrvuchuzre
noun
pilot
zycre
noun
fly; gnat; mosquito; bee
zydre
noun
height; depth
zylman
verb
to give; to donate
zylmazhi
descriptive
given; donated
zylmre
noun
gift; present; donation
zylmuyr
descriptive
generous; giving; donating; philanthropic
zylmuzre
noun
generous person; giver; donor; philanthropist
zynazhi
descriptive
mortal
zynre
noun
mortality
zytan
verb
to die; to kill; to end
zytazhi
descriptive
dead; deathly
zythan
verb
to rise; to ascend; to move upward
zythazhi
descriptive
upper; higher; taller; upward
zythre
noun
top; maximum; apex; zenith
zythre-ne
noun
winter
zytnynre
noun
grave; graveyard; cemetery; crypt; bedroom; inn
zytre
noun
death; end
Zytrysse
noun
goddess of death
zytuclytan
verb
to dream; to hallucinate
zytuclytre
noun
illusion; dream; mirage; hallucination
zytusan
verb
to sleep; to be unconscious
zytusazhi
descriptive
asleep; unconscious
zytusre
noun
sleep; unconsciousness
zytuyr
descriptive
deadly; lethal; fatal; conclusive
zytuzre
noun
killer; executioner
zytvhytan
verb
to change seasons
zytvhytazhi
descriptive
seasonal
zytvhytre
noun
season (time)