Nactlylvh, or “Night Speech”, is the native language of the Nacdrel, a race of immortal humanoids. It is also spoken by people influenced by Nacdrel culture. Some interesting features of the language include:
- Free word order
- Ergative-absolutive case system
- Five-tiered plural system
- Two definite articles—proximal and distal—but no indefinite article
- No morphological distinction between past- and present-tense verbs
- Octal number system
Phonetic transcriptions appear within brackets (e.g., [ɱ]). These represent precise, individual sounds where subtle variations matter.
Phonemic transcriptions appear within slashes (e.g., /ɱ/). These represent groups of similar sounds. A language considers all members of a group to be a single sound in spite of any subtle differences.
Orthographic transcriptions appear within chevrons (e.g., ⟨m⟩). These represent the written letters a language uses to represent a sound.
Phonetic and phonemic transcriptions use the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Most of the IPA, pronunciations can be heard here:
|Fricative||/f v/||/θ ð/||/s z/||/ʃ ʒ/||/x/|
|/ɱ/||English ⟨m⟩ with upper teeth against lower lip, as in ⟨symphony⟩|
|/n/||English ⟨n⟩ as in ⟨night⟩|
|/t/||English ⟨t⟩ as in ⟨time⟩|
|/d/||English ⟨d⟩ as in ⟨dark⟩|
|/k/||English ⟨k⟩ as in ⟨kill⟩, never ⟨c⟩ as in ⟨cell⟩|
|/f/||English ⟨f⟩ as in ⟨fate⟩|
|/v/||English ⟨v⟩ as in ⟨vapor⟩|
|/θ/||English ⟨th⟩ as in ⟨thin⟩|
|/ð/||English ⟨th⟩ as in ⟨then⟩|
|/s/||English ⟨s⟩ as in ⟨sigh⟩|
|/z/||English ⟨z⟩ as in ⟨zero⟩|
|/ʃ/||English ⟨sh⟩ as in ⟨shy⟩|
|/ʒ/||English ⟨s⟩ as in ⟨vision⟩|
|/x/||Scottish ⟨ch⟩ as in ⟨loch⟩|
|/χ/||Guttural hiss, with optional growl or purr|
|/ʁ/||Guttural or French ⟨r⟩, with optional growl or purr|
|/l/||English ⟨l⟩ as in ⟨lake⟩, never as in ⟨cool⟩|
Nactlylvh has a late voicing onset time. Prolonged voiced consonants may even be pronounced as an unvoiced phoneme followed by a voiced one (e.g., /zː/ may be pronounced as [sz]).
[ɱ̥ ɱ], [n̥ n], and [l̥ l] are complementary allophones of /ɱ/, /n/, and /l/, respectively. The voiced phonemes in each of those pairs only occur adjacent to other voiced consonants.
Although [χ ʁ] are technically fricatives according to the IPA, in Nactlylvh they may be formed as either fricatives or approximants. For the purposes of phonotactical constraints, they are always considered approximants.
Doubled nasals, fricatives, and approximants are simply prolonged. The second in a doubled stop is fricativized (e.g., /kk/ is pronounced [kx]). Note that alveolar /t d/ fricativize into dental /θ ð/ (e.g., /tt/ is pronounced [tθ]).
|/i/||English ⟨ee⟩ as in ⟨free⟩|
|/ɯ/||English ⟨u⟩ as in ⟨lure⟩, but without rounding the lips|
|/ɪ/||English ⟨i⟩ as in ⟨bit⟩|
|/ɤ/||English ⟨oo⟩ as in ⟨foot⟩|
|/ɛ/||English ⟨e⟩ as in ⟨bed⟩|
|/ʌ/||Something between English ⟨u⟩ as in ⟨gut⟩ and ⟨o⟩ as in ⟨not⟩|
|/ä/||English ⟨a⟩ as in ⟨father⟩|
Although seven vowels are given above, in practice they can often be reduced to just three: /ɪ ɤ ä/. All the others are allophones in most cases:
- [i ɪ ɛ] are allophones of /ɪ/
- [ɯ ɤ ʌ] are allophones of /ɤ/
Note that, in contrast to English, the lips are never rounded when pronouncing back vowels.
Doubled or long vowels are pronounced as two short vowels separated a non-syllabic /χ/ (e.g., /äː/ is pronounced [äχä]).
|/ɪ̯ɛ/||English ⟨ye⟩ as in ⟨yet⟩|
|/ɤ̯ɪ/||English ⟨wi⟩ as in ⟨win⟩|
|/ɤ̯ä/||English ⟨wa⟩ as in ⟨water⟩|
|/ɛɪ̯/||English ⟨ay⟩ as in ⟨day⟩|
|/äɪ̯/||English ⟨i⟩ as in ⟨spine⟩|
Nactlylvh syllables adhere to the following rules:
- Syllables follow the pattern (C)(C)V(C)(C), that is:
- Up to two optional consonants
- A required vowel (which may be short, long, or a diphthong)
- Up to two optional consonant
- Onset consonant clusters adhere to the following order:
- Nasal or stop
- Coda consonant clusters are only allowed at the end of a word, and adhere to the opposite order:
- Nasal or stop
- Consonant pairings from the same level of the hierarchy are only allowed between onset fricatives, with the following additional restrictions:
- Fricative clusters adhere to the following order:
- Postalveolar and velar fricatives may not be paired with other fricatives
- Fricative clusters adhere to the following order:
- Adjacent consonants must agree in voicing
- /x/ may only be paired with /k/ and approximants
- Word-final nasals may form their own syllable following a stop or fricative
For ease of reference, here are the romanizations of all the possible Nactlylvh onsets:
And all the possible Nactlylvh codas:
Some of the onsets and codas above seem to violate the phonotactical rules (e.g., voiced and unvoiced consonants appearing together, as in ⟨cz⟩). This is a result of Nactlylvh’s romanization scheme, and only affects written language. All the clusters above are prounounced in accordance with the phonotactical rules (e.g., ⟨cz⟩ is pronounced /ks/).
During affixation, certain phoneme patterns arise which are subject to additional rules. These rules affect both pronunciation and spelling; therefore, they are simpler to explain using romanized examples:
- In any pattern of C1C2V(V)(C3)C2, drop the first occurrence of C2
- ⟨nactavtre⟩ → ⟨nacavtre⟩
- ⟨rysnanai⟩ → ⟨rysanai⟩
- ⟨umvavtre⟩ → ⟨umavtre⟩
- In any pattern of VCVC, where each V and C are identical, if C is a stop, change its second occurrence to a fricative; if C is a fricative, change the second occurrence to a stop; note that alveolar stops fricativize to dentals
- ⟨zadhadhath⟩ → ⟨zadhadath⟩
- ⟨vytytre⟩ → ⟨vytythre⟩
- In any pattern of ⟨r⟩VC⟨r⟩, drop the final ⟨r⟩ and double the preceding C
- ⟨dracre⟩ → ⟨dracce⟩
- ⟨tryzre⟩ → ⟨tryzze⟩
- ⟨druchre⟩ → ⟨druchhe⟩
- ⟨drylre⟩ → ⟨drylle⟩
- In any pattern of C⟨lr⟩, drop the final ⟨r⟩
- ⟨adhlre⟩ → ⟨adhle⟩
- ⟨ithlre⟩ → ⟨ithle⟩
- In any pattern of C⟨l⟩V(V)⟨r⟩, move the ⟨l⟩ to the end of the pattern and drop the ⟨r⟩
- ⟨adhlyr⟩ → ⟨adhyl⟩
- ⟨ithluyr⟩ → ⟨ithuyl⟩
- If a medial consonant cluster cannot be divided in a way that produces two legal syllables, drop the second consonant and check again
- ⟨nactdrylle⟩ → ⟨nacdrylle⟩
- ⟨umvnactre⟩ → ⟨umnactre⟩
Note that these changes only apply to patterns that appear across syllable boundaries as a result of morphological processes. Uninflected, non-compound words are never affected.
Syllable breaks are placed according to the following rules:
- Never divide word-initial consonant clusters: ⟨mvar⟩, ⟨dvus⟩
- Divide medial and word-final clusters of two consonants:
- Between nasals and any other consonant: ⟨um-vyr⟩, ⟨haz-n⟩
- Between stops and fricatives at different places of articulation: ⟨ac-zyr⟩, ⟨u-dzyr⟩
- Between fricatives and approximants: ⟨us-re⟩
- Between any combination that is not a legal onset: ⟨az-zhul⟩
- Divide after the first in a three-consonant cluster: ⟨nac-tre⟩, ⟨um-vre⟩
- Divide after vowels followed by single consonants: ⟨zy-vyr⟩
- Never divide diphthongs: ⟨nuar⟩, ⟨syl-ma-viet⟩
- Never divide long vowels: ⟨tsy-liiz⟩
- Divide between adjacent, non-diphthong vowels: ⟨us-re-um⟩
Nactlylvh stress is regular and can be determined by following these steps:
- Stress the final syllable: ⟨dhavyr⟩
- If the final syllable is a standalone nasal or ends in a vowel, move the stress to the penultimate syllable: ⟨dhavre⟩
- If the word contains a doubled consonant, move the stress to the vowel immediately preceding the last instance of such phonemes: ⟨azzytath⟩
- If the word contains a long vowel or diphthong, move the stress to the last instance of such phonemes: ⟨syylvath⟩
|/f/||⟨vh⟩ by itself or adjacent to a nasal or approximant, ⟨v⟩ otherwise|
|/s/||⟨s⟩ by itself or adjacent to a nasal or approximant, ⟨z⟩ otherwise|
|/ʃ/||⟨sh⟩ by itself or adjacent to a nasal or approximant, ⟨zh⟩ otherwise|
|/χ/||⟨h⟩ by itself, ⟨r⟩ otherwise|
|/i/||⟨y⟩ between two consonants, ⟨i⟩ otherwise|
|/ɪ/||⟨e⟩ at the end of a word, ⟨y⟩ otherwise|
|/ɛ/||⟨y⟩ between two consonants, ⟨e⟩ otherwise|
There is some overlap in the romanization of consonants, which can make reading Nactlylvh a little tricky. The following rules should help:
- If a lone consonant has variable voicing (i.e., ⟨m n l⟩), it is unvoiced
- In consonant clusters:
- If both consonants have the same voicing, use that voicing
- If one of the consonants has variable voicing (i.e., ⟨m n l r⟩), use the other consonant’s voicing (e.g., ⟨mv⟩ is pronounced /ɱv/, but ⟨ms⟩ is pronounced /ɱ̥s/)
- If both consonants have variable voicing, they are unvoiced (e.g., ⟨ml⟩ is pronounced /ɱ̥l̥/)
- If the cluster is a syllable onset, use the first consonant’s voicing (e.g., ⟨dri⟩ is pronounced /dʁi/, ⟨tri⟩ is pronounced /tχi/)
- If the cluster is a syllable coda, use the second consonant’s voicing (e.g., ⟨yvd⟩ is pronounced /ɪvd/, ⟨yvt⟩ is pronounced /ɪft/)
- ⟨h⟩ only appears in clusters as part of a di- or trigraph (e.g., ⟨dh⟩ and ⟨vhh⟩ are pronounced /ð/ and /fː/)
Similarly, the heavy use of ⟨y u⟩ blurs a lot of vowel distinction. But in the case of those two letters, it doesn’t really matter how one reads them, since the differences between the phones they represent are almost never used to distinguish words.
Native Nactlylvh is written from right to left, top to bottom. However, for convenience, all examples in this guide are written from left to right, as in English.
The following are capitalized:
- First word in a sentence
- Every word in the name of a specific entity (e.g., a person, place, time, creative work, etc.)
Take special note of the term specific entity. Nactlylvh is far more conservative with its capitalization than English, using it almost exclusively for denoting a unique instance of a thing. For example, ⟨America⟩ would be capitalized because it refers to a specific country, but ⟨american⟩ is not capitalized because it refers to a subgroup of people, not a specific person.
Capitalization of times can be a little trickier for English speakers, although they follow the same rule. The word ⟨day⟩ would not be capitalized, of course, but neither would ⟨sunday⟩ or even ⟨easter⟩. All of those terms refer to subgroups; there’s a new Easter every year, after all. But a one-time event, such as a particularly memorable Easter, may be given a name (e.g., ⟨Great Easter⟩), and that name would be capitalized.
Although it is not a rule, pronouns and other references to deities are often capitalized. A variation on this tendency is that divine references are capitalized only when the speaker is not a deity themself.
Names of languages are not capitalized.
This guide will use English capitalization rules except when presenting Nactlylvh examples.
You can generally use English conventions for punctuation, with a few exceptions:
- Commas are usually reserved for separating clauses
- Punctuation marks only go inside quotation marks if they are themselves part of the quotation
- Semicolons are never used; form separate sentences instead
- Exclamation points are rare and viewed similarly to all-caps in English
Nactlylvh uses an alphabetical order that differs from English:
This order reflects some phonological awareness. Consonants come first, followed by vowels. Consonants are arranged first by position, then amount of closure, and finally voicing. Note that the dental, alveolar, and postalveolar positions are collapsed. Vowels are arranged first by height, then frontness, with ⟨i e⟩ treated as variants of ⟨y⟩.
For convenience, this guide will use English alphabetical order.
Parts of Speech
Nactlylvh vocabulary can be organized into nine parts of speech (POS):
Most parts of speech undergo some form of inflection. Nactlylvh inflection primarily uses agglutinative suffixes, although prefixes and fusional inflections also occur.
When applying affixes, the result must adhere to Nactlylvh’s phonotactics. This may result in certain forms differing from the official paradigms.
Noun roots are the core of Nactlylvh, forming the basis for nearly all other words in the lexicon. There is no verb or descriptive that does not derive from a noun, and many determiners and numbers derive from them as well.
The citation form for nouns is the locative singular.
Nouns may also be modified by a number of derivational inflections:
|Augmentative||⟨adh⟩||sword → greatsword|
|Diminutive||⟨us⟩||sword → dagger|
|Positive||⟨a⟩||to pose → to stand|
|Negative||⟨u⟩||to pose → to lie|
|Moderative||⟨y⟩||to pose → to sit|
|Associated Agent||⟨urz⟩||sword → swordsman|
|Associated Patient||⟨ul⟩||pursuit → prey|
|Associated Place||⟨nyn⟩||monarch → palace|
|Associated Container||⟨svulc⟩||sword → scabbard|
|Associated Object, Result, or Instance||⟨yt⟩||child → toy|
|Associated Collection||⟨hant⟩||bone → skeleton|
These derivations are formed prior to the addition of declension suffixes.
Nactlylvh has five grammatical numbers:
- Singular is used when there is exactly one of a thing (e.g., a tree), or if the thing is uncountable (e.g., water).
- Paucal can be used for any quantity greater than one, but less than half of the total quantity (e.g., in a group of eight trees, paucal may imply 2–3 trees). In practice, it is reserved for when the speaker wants to emphasize the quantity’s smallness (e.g., a few trees, some trees, a minority of the trees).
- Plural can be used for any quantity that represents half or more of the total quantity, but not all of it (e.g., in a group of eight trees, plural may imply 4–7 trees). In practice, it is used when the speaker wants to emphasize the quantity’s largeness (e.g., several trees, many trees, most trees). Plural also serves as a default when the speaker is unsure which grammatical number to use (e.g., there are trees).
- Comprehensive is used to refer to all members of a given group (e.g., each tree, every tree, all of the trees). This frequently occurs when speaking of a nationality or organization (e.g., Germans, the Boy Scouts).
- Null is used to exclude all members of a given group (e.g., no tree, none of the trees).
Nactlylvh has six cases:
- The ergative case is used for active subjects (i.e., the subject is doing something).
- The absolutive case is used for direct objects and passive subjects (i.e., something is happening to the subject).
- The reflexive case is used for subjects that perform actions on themselves or—in the case of multiple subjects—each other.
- The locative case is used alongside a preposition to describe static relationships (e.g., in a house, during the battle, of the king). When combined with the relational preposition, it may signify possession. It may also be used without a preposition as a catch-all for any situation not covered by the other cases (e.g., exclamations, direct addresses, etc.).
- The lative case is used alongside a preposition to describe dynamic positive relationships (e.g., into the house, until the battle, for the king).
- The ablative case is used alongside a preposition to describe dynamic negative relationships (e.g., away from the house, since the battle, against the king).
Nactlylvh nouns may make use of the following derivational forms to create new nouns:
- The augmentative can be loosely translated as “big X” (e.g., ⟨sword⟩ becomes ⟨greatsword⟩).
- The diminutive can be loosely translated as “small X” (e.g., ⟨sword⟩ becomes ⟨dagger⟩).
- The positive derivation is similar to the augmentative, and there is no hard and fast rule about when to use which. Often, the positive derivation is used for subtle variations on a concept rather than a completely new concept, or for variations that are more abstract than physical size (e.g., ⟨posture⟩ becomes ⟨standing posture⟩).
- The negative derivation is similar to the diminutive, and there is no hard and fast rule about when to use which. Often, the negative derivation is used for subtle variations on a concept rather than a completely new concept, or for variations that are more abstract than physical size (e.g., ⟨posture⟩ becomes ⟨lying posture⟩).
- The moderative derivation lies in the middle of the positive-negative axis, and emphasizes averageness or compromise (e.g., ⟨posture⟩ becomes ⟨sitting posture⟩).
- Associated Agent
- An agent is a person or device that performs an action associated with the noun (e.g., ⟨pursuit⟩ becomes ⟨hunter⟩).
- Associated Patient
- A patient is a person or object that receives an action associated with the noun (e.g., ⟨pursuit⟩ becomes ⟨prey⟩), often at the hands of the agent.
- Associated Place
- A place is a building, room, or geographical location where one would expect to encounter the noun (e.g., ⟨monarch⟩ becomes ⟨palace⟩).
- Associated Container
- A container is a similar to a place, but differs in scale; a container is something one might conceivably carry on their person (e.g., ⟨birth⟩ becomes ⟨egg⟩).
- Associated Object
- The object derivation is mostly used to distill an abstract noun into something more concrete (e.g., ⟨commerce⟩ becomes ⟨money⟩), or an uncountable noun into something countable (e.g., ⟨water⟩ becomes ⟨droplet⟩). It may also be a tool used by an associated agent (e.g., ⟨child⟩ becomes ⟨toy⟩).
- Associated Collection
- An associated collection is, as the name implies, a grouping of multiple instances of the base noun (e.g., ⟨bone⟩ becomes ⟨skeleton⟩).
Not every noun will make use of every derivation.
Two or more nouns may be concatenated to form a new word. The first noun acts as a modifier to the second, or base noun. Any resulting medial consonant clusters must then be altered to respect Nactlylvh’s phonotactics.
The particle ⟨cu⟩ may be placed before any noun to turn that noun into a query noun (e.g., “thing” becomes “what”, “person” becomes “who”, “sword” becomes “which sword”).
Irregular nouns are uncommon in Nactlylvh, but there are a few. Notably, most of the irregular nouns are pronouns, which double as determiners.
Prepositions must always immediately precede a noun in either the locative, lative, or ablative case (the prepositional cases) to form a prepositional phrase.
Nactlylvh has just three prepositions:
- Locational ⟨lu⟩
- The locational preposition is used to describe spatial relationships (e.g., in the house, toward the house, away from the house).
- Temporal ⟨dhu⟩
- The temporal preposition is used to describe time-based relationships (e.g., during the battle, until the battle, since the battle).
- Relational ⟨vu⟩
- The relational preposition is used to describe abstract relationships (e.g., of the king, for the king, against the king).
All prepositional phrases in Nactlylvh serve essentially the same purpose as descriptives; that is, they make a noun or verb more specific.
Determiners must always immediately follow the noun they describe. In writing, they are attached to the noun by a hyphen. Nactlylvh has three types of determiners:
Nactlylvh does not have indefinite articles, but it has two definite articles which double as proximal and distal demonstratives. When deciding which—if any—to use, ask these two questions:
- Is the listener familiar with the entity in question (e.g., a wolf vs. the wolf)? If not, don’t use an article
- Is the entity in question present with the speaker (e.g., the speaker can see, hear, or touch the wolf)?
- If so, use the proximal definite article ⟨zie⟩
- If not, use the distal definite article ⟨zai⟩
- When in doubt, use ⟨zai⟩
Nactlylvh is not as liberal with its articles as English. Proper nouns almost never take an article; where English would say “the Atlantic Ocean”, Nactlylvh says “Atlantic Ocean”. There’s only one, so the article is redundant. It’s similar to how an English speaker would never say “I went to the New York to visit the David.” As a general rule of thumb, terms that are capitalized in Nactlylvh don’t take articles.
Possessive determiners are equivalent to the English possessive pronouns ⟨my⟩, ⟨your⟩, ⟨its⟩, etc. They inflect based on the grammatical number of their referent, not the number of the noun to which they are attached.
Numbers may be used as quantifiers, and do not inflect when used as such. Naturally, “zero” may only be attached to null nouns, “one” to singular nouns, and all other counters to paucal, plural, or comprehensive nouns.
A quantifier may be prefixed to any other determiner (e.g., the three swords). The resulting compound must adhere to Nactlylvh’s phonotactics.
All verbs are derived from noun roots by applying a verbal conjugation suffix:
|Infinitive||Perfect||Imperfect||Future Imperfect||Future Perfect|
The citation form for verbs is the infinitive indicative.
Nactlylvh verbs have four morphological tenses:
- The perfect tense is used for completed actions in the past or present (e.g., he ran, he had run, he has run).
- The imperfect tense is used for ongoing, continuous, or habitual actions in the past or present (e.g., he is running, he runs). Although it is used mostly with the present tense, it can be used to approximate a past tense if an appropriate temporal reference point is set (e.g., he is running yesterday). This tense also serves to replace the English modal verb ⟨can⟩ when combined with the indicative mood.
- Future Imperfect
- The future imperfect tense is used for actions that will be ongoing, continuous, or habitual in the future (e.g., he will run, he will be running). This tense also serves to replace the English modal verb ⟨can⟩ when combined with the indicative mood.
- Future Perfect
- The future perfect tense is used for actions that will be completed in the future (e.g., he will have run).
Nactlylvh has five verbal moods:
- The indicative mood is used for statements of fact (e.g., he is speaking). It can be thought of as a default form. When combined with one of the imperfect tenses, it can represent the English modal verb ⟨can⟩. In rare cases, it may be combined with the future perfect tense to form strong commands.
- The desiderative mood is used to express desired outcomes (e.g., I hope he speaks) or positive commands (e.g., speak!). It also serves to replace the English modal verbs ⟨should⟩ and ⟨must⟩.
- The timitive mood is used to express feared outcomes (e.g., I’m afraid he’ll speak) or negative commands (e.g., don’t speak!). It may also serve to replace the negative (i.e., “not”) forms of the English modal verbs ⟨should⟩ and ⟨must⟩.
- The negative mood may be combined with any of the other moods, and is used to invert their meaning (e.g., it is not raining). It is formed by adding the suffix ⟨ach⟩ to the verb.
The infinitive form becomes a gerund if given a nominal declension suffix.
Irregular verbs are even less common than irregular nouns. The most notable is the verb “to be”:
|Infinitive||Perfect||Imperfect||Future Imperfect||Future Perfect|
Descriptives must immediately follow either a noun or verb. If a descriptive follows a noun, it must agree with that noun in number. If it follows a verb, it must agree in number with the verb’s subject.
Descriptives are derived from noun roots by applying a descriptive suffix:
There are two forms of descriptives:
- The stative is used when the described noun is in a state (e.g., dead).
- The causative is used when the described noun causes a state (e.g., deadly).
Nactlylvh uses an octal number system, meaning it only has eight digits (0–7). This is most likely because Nacdrel have four fingers on each hand (for a total of eight), but it may also bear some relation to the fact that Nacdrel revere the moon with its eight cardinal phases.
|Decimal Digit||Octal Digit||Name|
Numbers larger than ⟨lur⟩ are formed via concatenation.
|Decimal Digit||Octal Digit||Name|
This method allows numbers up to decimal 63 (⟨enluryn⟩, octal 77). Decimal 64 (octal 100) is formed by compounding ⟨arc⟩ (perfection) and ⟨lur⟩, resulting in ⟨arclur⟩.
Fractions are formed by suffixing ⟨ash⟩. Nactlylvh fractions are never used as ordinals like they are in English.
Ordinals are formed by suffixing ⟨ai⟩. Note that the ordinal “last” is derived not from a number, but from ⟨zyt⟩ (death).
The numbers 5–7 may alternatively take a stative descriptive suffix.
Ordinal forms are never used for fractions like they are in English.
When used as nouns, numbers take a nominal declension suffix.
When speaking of the number itself (e.g., “four is a multiple of two”), the number almost always takes singular inflections. However, it may take plural inflections in rare situations, such as referring to all of the threes in a deck of cards.
When used to count things, as in “five swords,” the number is treated as a determiner.
Conjunctions may connect individual words, phrases, or sentences. Unless stated otherwise, the order of the connected arguments doesn’t matter.
|⟨yl⟩||and||Arguments on either side are treated as a single unit|
|⟨das⟩||but not, except||Arguments on the right are excluded|
|⟨syt⟩||and then||The second argument chronologically follows the first|
|⟨yr⟩||and-or||One or more of the linked arguments may be true at the same time|
|⟨ec⟩||either-or||Only one of the linked arguments may be true|
|⟨uv⟩||if-then||If the argument on one side is true, the other is also true|
|⟨du⟩||however||If the argument on one side is true, the other is false|
|⟨uvn⟩||therefore||The first argument causes the second|
|⟨nvu⟩||because||The second argument causes the first|
|⟨zhra⟩||also||Emphasizes similarity between arguments; the argument being compared against may be omitted|
English contains a wide array of utterances that help to guide the flow of conversation, for example: ⟨uh⟩, ⟨oh⟩, ⟨well⟩, ⟨OK⟩, ⟨right?⟩, ⟨mm-hm⟩, etc. These are almost entirely absent among Nacdrel, whose speech is characteristically uncluttered, and aided by a deep racial understanding even between strangers. Other Nactlylvh-speaking races, however, have adopted several markers.
In the following chart, note that the speaker is always the one currently in control of the conversation, or taking a turn. The other party is always the listener, even if they are technically uttering an interjection.
|⟨reu⟩||Speaker||Before speaker’s own turn||Introduce a new topic, claim the turn|
|⟨y⟩||Speaker||During speaker’s own turn||Retain the turn during a moment of thought|
|⟨mve⟩||Speaker||After speaker’s own turn||Complete the current topic, surrender the turn|
|⟨u⟩||Speaker||After speaker’s own turn||Request the other party to take a turn|
|⟨ue⟩||Listener||During speaker’s turn||Acknowledge an ongoing turn|
|⟨aveu⟩||Listener||During speaker’s turn||Steal the turn, introduce a new topic|
|⟨a⟩||Listener||After speaker’s turn||Acknowledge a finished turn|
|⟨sa⟩||Listener||After speaker’s turn||Acknowledge a finished turn with agreement or pleasure|
|⟨cha⟩||Listener||After speaker’s turn||Acknowledge a finished turn with disagreement or displeasure|
|⟨ere⟩||Listener||After speaker’s turn||Acknowledge a finished turn with confusion, requests clarification|
Nactlylvh employs a single particle: the interrogative ⟨cu⟩. ⟨cu⟩ may preceed any noun or verb to form a question. The word that ⟨cu⟩ preceeds is the word being questioned (e.g., consider the difference between “Did he read the book?” and “Did he read the book?”).
Nactlylvh’s case system enables free word order at the sentence level, meaning the major components of a sentence (i.e., subject, object, verb) may technically appear in any order. However, one should be aware of the nuances imparted to a sentence by a chosen arrangement.
The key to understanding how word order affects meaning is emphasis. Nactlylvh places emphasis on the first and last things mentioned, with the last receiving the most attention. Therefore, the first component in a sentence is emphasized as the topic, a piece of information that sets the context for all that follows. The last component in a sentence is emphasized as the comment, a piece of new information, and the sentence’s raison d’être.
The following chart illustrates the differences between the six possible word orders for the simple sentence “I ate the fish.” The translations have been exaggerated to better highlight the nuances:
|SOV||Zhyr czharath-zai nuthyzaan.||As for me, I ate the fish.|
|SVO||Zhyr nuthyzaan czharath-zai.||As for me, I ate the fish.|
|OSV||Czharath-zai zhyr nuthyzaan.||As for the fish, I ate it.|
|OVS||Czharath-zai nuthyzaan zhyr.||As for the fish, it was eaten by me.|
|VSO||Nuthyzaan zhyr czharath-zai.||On the subject of eating, I did that to the fish.|
|VOS||Nuthyzaan czharath-zai zhyr.||On the subject of eating, the fish was eaten by me.|
In the absence of any semantic requirements, a default order of subject-object-verb (SOV) is often used. Individual speakers may also favor other default orders for purely aesthetic reasons.
Free word order does not apply at the phrase level. While subjects, verbs, and objects may be arranged however the speaker wishes, their associated descriptives, determiners, and prepositions must adhere to a strict sequence, which is primarily head-first:
- Head Noun or Verb
- Prepositional Phrase
- Subordinate Clause
Theoretically, there is no limit to the number of modifiers (descriptives, prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses) that follow the head (the noun or verb). However, the more elements one adds, the harder it is to understand the sentence. As a rule of thumb, a phrase should contain either one prepositional phrase or one subordinate clause. This allows, for example, a prepositional object to itself be modified by a prepositional phrase or subordinate clause without introducing too much ambiguity. Keep things simple, and remember that the prototypical speakers, the Nacdrel, are infamous for their taciturnity.
In Nactlylvh, the following parts of speech (elements) are potentially elligible for contraction:
Those elements must be contracted to the word immediately following them (their successor, always a noun or verb) if any of the following are true:
- The successor begins with a vowel
- The element’s onset and the successor’s onset together form a legal onset cluster (ignoring any voicing rules)
Contraction is performed by omitting the contracted element’s final vowels and attaching it to its successor with an apostrophe.
If multiple clauses in a compound sentence share the same subject, object, or verb, all but the first occurrence may be omitted (e.g., “he came and he left” becomes “he came and left”).
If a clause’s subject and object are the same entity, as in reflexive or reciprocal sentences, the object must be omitted (e.g., “he hurt himself” becomes “he [himself] hurt”).
In cases where English requires a dummy subject such as ⟨it⟩, Nactlylvh can simply omit the subject entirely (e.g., “it is raining” becomes “is raining”).
Subordinate clauses are simply placed after the word they modify, as if they were descriptives. In writing, they are set off from the rest of the sentence by commas (e.g., “I ate the fish that the man caught” becomes “I ate the fish, the man caught it”).
However, native speakers consider such constructions to be clunky. They instead prefer to set up an appropriate context so that subordinate clauses are unnecessary (e.g., “I ate the fish that the man caught” becomes “I ate that fish”).
Questions may be formed in one of two ways:
- The particle ⟨cu⟩
Intonation is the simplest method, but also the least explicit.
When the nouns ⟨savre⟩ and ⟨hazre⟩ are used to answer a yes/no question, the case ending may be omitted (e.g., ⟨sav⟩). A plural inflection may be used to answer multiple questions at once (e.g., ⟨savri⟩ “yes to all of the above”) or to qualify an answer (e.g., ⟨savrym⟩ “yes for the most part”).
Nearly all commands are formed using the desiderative and timitive verbal moods (e.g., “I wish you would go” or “I wish you wouldn’t go). This is the indirect—but polite—way to request something.
A future perfect indicative verb may be used instead (e.g., “you will go”), but this is considered rude and presumptuous. Such direct commands are reserved for those who are particularly prone to disobedience.
Both types of commands may be strengthened by omitting the subject, but only if the subject is also the listener (e.g., “I wish you would go” becomes “I wish would go”).
First- and third-person subjects are possible. “I will go” may be an attempt to motivate oneself. “They will go” can be interpreted as a succinct form of “You will order them to go.”
When forming a comparative sentence, first try to use a suitable verb. For instance, instead of saying “John is stronger than David,” say “John overpowers David.”
If an appropriate verb does not exist, then the standard construction for comparative sentences, where x’s quality is being compared against y’s, looks like this:
x compares ⟨lu⟩ quality ⟨vu⟩ y
X always takes the absolutive case. Quality takes the locative case if x’s is equal to or greater than y’s, or the ablative case otherwise. Y takes the ablative case unless both are equal, in which case it takes the locative case. A literal translation of “My son is taller than a tree” would read something like “My son compares with height against a tree.”
The order of the elements can be changed of course, although care should be taken to avoid confusion.
Comparative sentences don’t necessarily need to include a y to compare against, assuming the y is known or unimportant.
Nactlylvh gets by without comparative descriptives (e.g., bigger, biggest). Context is enough to determine that, when referring to “the big one,” you mean “the biggest one,” no matter how many large objects are currently present.
Causative sentences may be formed in two ways. The first, and most common, lookes like this, where x’s actionx causes y’s actiony:
x actionx actiony ⟨vu⟩ y
X typically takes the ergative case, and actionx is treated as a normal verb. Actiony becomes a gerund in the absolutive case, and y takes the relational locative case. If y is represented by a pronoun, it may instead be appended to actiony as a possessive determiner. A literal translation of “I made him go” would read something like “I caused his going.”
This technique may also be applied beyond causative sentences to any similar verbal relationship, even ones in which the causer-causee relationship is reversed (e.g., “I don’t believe John is telling the truth” becomes “I don’t believe the truth-telling of John”; “I will be happy to go” becomes “I will enjoy my going”).
The second method is to link two independent clauses with the conjunctions ⟨uvn⟩ or ⟨nvu⟩. A literal translation of this method would read something like “I caused, therefore he went” or “He went because I caused.”
Existential sentences (e.g., “He is a dog.”) are uncommon in Nactlylvh. Instead, a more colorful, specific verb is used, as in the examples below:
|He is a swordsman.||He wields a sword.|
|It is deadly.||It kills.|
|It is black.||It has blackened.|
|He is three years old.||He has lived three years.|
The irregular verb ⟨etryn⟩ (“to be”) is usually reserved for when a more appropriate verb does not exist. In that case, both the subject and object (if it isn’t a descriptive) take the absolutive case. The subject is not acting as an agent, and the subject and object labels can be swapped without altering the meaning of the sentence.
If the subject instead takes the ergative case, it implies that the subject is actively behaving as something else (e.g., “He is acting like a dog.”).
Colloquially, English tends to place antonyms on opposite ends of a spectrum:
Nactlylvh takes a different perspective:
Reality is viewed as having a default empty state (e.g., dark). Via creative transition (e.g., illuminate), reality can acheive a full state (e.g., bright). Once in a full state, reality can then undergo a destructive transition (e.g., darken) to return to its default state. The table below illustrates this with several examples:
|Empty State||Creative Transition||Full State||Destructive Transition||Empty State|
|nothing||to create||something||to destroy||nothing|
|stillness||to move||motion||to stop||stillness|
|death||to birth||life||to kill||death|
|cold||to burn||warmth||to freeze||cold|
|darkness||to brighten||light||to darken||darkness|
|silence||to utter||noise||to quiet||silence|
|oblivion||to birth||life||to die||oblivion|
|emptiness||to fill||fullness||to empty||emptiness|
|loneliness||to arrive||companionship||to depart||loneliness|
|evil||to sanctify||good||to corrupt||evil|
|apathy||to incite||emotion||to dampen||apathy|
|dryness||to moisten||moisture||to dry||dryness|
Not everything defaults to an empty state, however, with morality being the most notable exception. Nacdrel believe that reality’s default state was full of goodness, and evil is caused by a removal of the former.
Life, Death, & Time
The most significant abstract concept in Nacdrel culture is the metaphysical trinity of life, death, and time. These elements are what bind a being’s mortal existence.
The Nacdrel concept of life is related to vitality, but not the act of living. Rather, life represents beginnings and positive change.
Death is the polar opposite of life. It represents endings and negative change. However, death is not necessarily associated with evil; Nacdrel consider it to be a natural, neutral part of existence. In fact, they generally hold the concept of death in higher esteem than that of life; they worship a goddess of death, and reality’s default state is dead.
If life and death are opposed to each other, then time is the judge that stands between them. A being is born of life, and leaves the mortal plane via death; time is what measures the space in between. As mentioned, the concept of life does not encompass the act of carrying out one’s existence (i.e., the act of living); that is instead given to the realm of time. Therefore, instead of saying “I live here,” a Nacdrel would say “I wait here.”
When using visual metaphor, Nacdrel culture illustrates time as flowing either downward or leftward, from life to death. When speaking, however, Nactlylvh describes direction in time using dedicated terminology that is completely separate from that used for spatial direction:
|⟨naryn⟩||to move future-ward|
|⟨duthyn⟩||to move past-ward|
It should come as no surprise that “Night-Children” who communicate in “Night-Speech” use a lunar calendar. The moon is an important religious symbol to the Nacdrel. It represents, among other things, the eye of Zetres, their goddess. Therefore, the major divisions of time revolve around the metaphor of an eye or face.
Note that ⟨nactre⟩ represents both a calendar day and nighttime, similar to how English ⟨day⟩ can mean both a calendar day and daytime.
A Nacdrel calendar day starts at moonrise. A Nacdrel month is the time it takes for the moon to pass through all its phases, with a new month beginning at each new moon. The exact duration of these time units varies from world to world.
Nacdrel do not acknowledge a “week” unit. However, other cultures have adapted the Nacdrel calendar and added the concept of weeks. In these societies, a week begins at the start of each lunar phase. So the week of the new moon starts on the first of the month, and the last week of the month starts at the waning half moon. Some cultures use only the new, full, and half moons, resulting in four weeks per month. Other cultures also incorporate the intermediate phases (crescents and gibbouses) for a total of eight weeks per month. Because Nacdrel don’t observe weeks, there is no native term in Nactlylvh.
In English, we’re accustomed to seasons being described by a metaphor of life and death (e.g., summer = life, winter = death). This metaphor is used by the Nacdrel as well, except they tie it to the power of their goddess of death.
Nactlylvh has an odd kinship system, arising from a mixture of Nacdrel biology and religion. Nacdrel view their deities as the ultimate parents of every created being. Therefore, they consider all people to be siblings, and this is reflected in most kinship terms.
There is another, more direct translation for ⟨parent⟩, but it is used exclusively of deities.
A side effect of this system is that the words for ⟨person⟩ and ⟨sibling⟩ (and their gendered counterparts) are the same; Nactlylvh speakers simply make no linguistic distinction between the two (although being a close blood relative certainly comes with several societal expectations and limitations).
Nactlylvh colors typically take their names from things that are that color (e.g., ⟨sylvre⟩ “plant” → ⟨green⟩).
The precise breakdown of color categories has its roots in Nacdrel vision. Nacdrel eyes are more sensitive to green and blue wavelengths than human eyes, but less sensitive to red, orange, and yellow. Additionally, Nacdrel are capable of seeing visible light as well as mvadhre, or “anti-light”.
Environment also plays a role in color organization. Nactlylvh is spoken primarily in pole-ward climates where cold hues, such as green and blue, dominate. Warmer colors tend to appear only when the natural state of things has been violated; orange is associated with fire, red with bloodshed.
The result is that while English has six main color categories (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple), Nactlylvh has nine completely different categories, with a heavy emphasis on the green-blue spectrum:
Black, white, and gray are straightforward, being named after darkness, light, and twilight, respectively.
The Nactlylvh equivalent to brown is a broad category named after dried blood. It encompasses the darker shades of red, orange, yellow, and magenta (“fire” and “blood” in the chart above).
Nacdrel names are often, though not always, derived from noun roots by applying a gender-based suffix.
- Male: ⟨ar⟩, ⟨ym⟩
- Female: ⟨iel⟩, ⟨rys⟩
Alternatively, a root may be appropriated unmodified for use as a name.
It is not uncommon for a name to be completely unique. A common word may be modified to suit the namer’s taste, or the name may be invented without any etymology at all. The only guideline for invented names is that it must conform to the language’s phonological rules.
A Nacdrel is typically named twice during its life, once at birth (birth name) and again to mark a defining accomplishment (accolade). Birth names may be arbitrary, or they may carry special significance. Accolades always signify the accomplishment for which they are given.
If a Nacdrel’s birth name and accolade are used together, the birth name comes first, followed immediately by the accolade.
Names always decline by case like regular nouns. The birth name and accolade must agree in case and number.
Nacdrel military forces are organized according to the metaphor of a torso. The smallest division is called a finger, and from there the ranks ascend through the hand, the arm, and the chest.
Nacdrel units are small, necessitated in part by their low populations. However, Nacdrel are exceptionally skilled and can augment their abilities with magic. A small Nacdrel force can be just as formidable as another army several times its size. Human units, on the other hand, are much larger and form the bulk of an army.
|Division||English||Nacdrel Soldiers||Human Soldiers|
To a Nacdrel, politeness is tied closely with honesty. Amusingly, this often makes them appear rude in other cultures where flattery is preferred to bluntness.
There is also a tendency toward reticence; as a rule, Nacdrel will say no more than what must be said. This is related to politeness (not wanting to waste the listener’s time), but it also touches on several other facets of Nacdrel culture, such as their racial melancholia and deep understanding of each other.
Tone of voice plays a large role in Nacdrel manners. Nactlylvh voicing and stress are subtle. Loud, strongly emphasized speech is a sign of disrespect. This is relative; the threshold between politeness and rudeness is stricter amongst Nacdrel, who are naturally soft-spoken, and more forgiving amongst other races.
Nactlylvh has no equivalent to the English ⟨please⟩ and ⟨thank you⟩. The closest one can get to making a polite request is to speak in a slightly higher, softer voice with a rising intonation. Grattitude is typically expressed through actions and demeanor rather than words.
Nactlylvh has four registers of speech organized by degree of formality:
The familiar register is used between friends. It is standard Nactlylvh, but with a lot of room for sloppy grammar. Most notably, this is the only level where given names are regularly used.
The formal register is used when the listener’s authority, power, or honor are lower than or equal to the speaker’s, and the two are not closely acquainted. It is very similar to the familiar level, except proper grammar is more closely observed, and accolades are preferred over given names.
The honorific register is used when the listener is above the speaker in authority, power, or honor. Proper grammar is strictly observed, and given names are never used. In this level, the default SOV sentence order is more common, only being altered for particular emphasis.
Note that the registers are chosen based on the speaker’s relationship to the listener. In a conversation between a peasant and a king, the peasant would speak in the honorific register, while the king would use the formal register. When speaking to a group of mixed or unknown status, use the highest appropriate register.
The familiar register can sometimes override the honorific register. If the king and peasant were good friends, either of them might use the familiar register, although manners would dictate that the king initiate its use.
Finally, the divine register is used exclusively for religious contexts, especially public prayers. It is identical to the honorific register, except no reference to the listener (i.e., the deity) is ever spoken, be it a name, title, or pronoun.
Lytre vu Drylle
The “Child’s Welcome” was first spoken by Queen Naactres to Vreith Nightstorm. It has since become a tradition to recite this passage to all newborn Nacdrel.
Note in the last line how free word order is used to create a poetic symmetry, emphasizing and linking the verbs ⟨mourn⟩ and ⟨heal⟩.
- Nyth mathuzyn drylyr: thyth zutyzaanach.
- Know this; child: you are not alone.
- Uvadhyr thyth nuthyzan; nyr nuthyzan zhythi nvu zhythi azyzaan lu Azzhulanai-zhym, Nyr uvadhyzan vu zytanai.
- Grief consumes you; it consumes us all; for were were born of our Mother; who grieves without end.
- Uvadhyzan zhyri l’yldre yl l’yldre zhyri avnyzan.
- We mourn together; and together we heal.
Hychre vu Nyzachymre
Tradition asserts that when the slain god Nezachim had recovered enough power to once again influence the world, certain individuals of a particularly sensative nature “heard” a terrible voice. Their reports coalesced into the “Curse of Nezachim”, the words spoken by the evil prince as he began his war against all living things.
- Lu thralavtre-zai vu mazmre-zhe mutuviin zvyrdryvtathi-zai vu Zvyrielle, luvazathi-zai vu Luvielre lu azurzavtre-zai vu tzynre-zhe.
- Make Zviriel’s currents the bearer of my plague; Luviel’s springs the source of my venom.
- Chashyri-zai vu Vyrushymre nuthyvaan vrytathi-nym syt Raicalymyr racyvaan usathre-nym.
- Verushim’s flames shall devour their flesh; and Raicalim shall bury their bones.
- Shynlylvhathi-nym dlynuvyn Azdhavyr vu darthanai!
- Hear their cries; loveless Father!
- Azzhulyr chazuyr ucluvyn, thyr nyth cytyzaan vu nynym!
- Treacherous Mother; see to what thou hast subjected them!
- Thur dhavusath-thym zutai nlysyzaan uvn nyr ryvath-zai vu drylusathi-thym truvhyvaan lu shynadhavtre vu zytanai.
- Thou casteth down thy firstborn; now he shall drag the rest of thy children into eternal anguish.
- Vyzcathi-nym drylyvan drylusyrym-zhe, curnathi-nym hydhyvaan drylusyrym-zhe.
- Their entrails shall be the playthings of my children; their skin my offspring’s cloaks.
- Syt zulre-nym…zulathi-nym zhyr ryzyvaan, drythzulathym-zai umvazhi, nyri vyzcyvaan vu thyvtru dhu zytanai vu drylli.
- And their souls…their souls shall be my trophies; the blackened ghosts that come for thee when everyone else is dead.
- Zhyr mathyvaan vu thyvtre lylvhath-zie vu nacdrylli: nactlylvhre.
- I will teach you the language of the Nacdrel: Nactlylvh.
- Zhyr nactlylvhyzan.
- I speak Nactlylvh.
- Nyr vhlurath-zai tazyzaan lu vhlusavtre-ne syt nuzyzaan.
- She raised the flower to her nose and smiled.
- Nyr zylmyzaan lu nyvtre zvathat.
- She gave him a sword.
- Dhaviiz-zhe myrcyzaan dhu zlytre-zai.
- My brother hid himself during the battle.
- Zhyr thyth nutyzan.
- I love you.
- Umvyr zhianyzan vyztath-thi, lurlyryr zulath-thi.
- Darkness forms your body; moonlight your spirit.
- Czharath-zai, nyth dhavyr-zai mvundyzaan, zhyr nuthyzaan.
- I ate the fish that the man caught.
- Zhur lytyzaan drylath vu nactre.
- We met a child of the night.
- Dhavyr-zie azdhavath-zhe zytyzaan.
- This man killed my father.
- Zytath c’zhytath ezt uv eztach darclytath?
- What is death but reunion?
This lexicon is organized alphabetically according to English conventions. Nouns are given in the singular locative case, and verbs are given in the infinitive.
- I see; mm-hm; oh?; ah
- huge; enormous; gigantic
- hugeness; enormity
- to grow in size or volume
- big; large
- bigness; largeness
- extremely long (spatial)
- extreme longness (spatial)
- to lengthen (spatial)
- long (spatial)
- longness (spatial)
- to stand
- upright; standing; erect
- upright, erect, or standing posture
- to perfect
- perfection; paragon; ideal
- to suppress emotion; to express indifference
- apathetic; indifferent; dispassionate
- apathy; indifference; dispassion
- uninteresting; boring; insignificant; sedative; suppressive
- extremely wide, fat, or broad
- extreme wideness, fatness, or broadness
- to widen; to fatten; to broaden; to grow in width
- wide; fat; broad
- wideness; fatness; broadness
- pardon me, but; hold on; excuse me; hey, listen!
- to rest; to heal; to recuperate
- rested; healed; recuperated
- rest; healing; recuperation
- doctor; healer
- restful; healing; recuperative
- to be alive; to give life; to give birth; to be born; to begin; to become conscious for the first time
- alive; vivacious; awake; conscious
- round; circular
- circle; ring; roundness
- to parent; to birth or raise a child
- life; birth; beginning; wakefulness; consciousness
- god of life
- womb; egg
- life-giver; source; origin
- vital; necessary for life; life-sustaining
- extremely tall or deep
- extreme tallness or deepness
- to grow in height or depth; to deepen
- tall; deep
- tallness; deepness
- to disorder; to disorganize; to break the law
- chaotic; disordered; lawless
- chaos; disorder; lawlessness
- disordering; unlawful; criminal
- to introduce
- oh no!; ew; grr; uh-uh; aw man
- to cast magic
- imbued with magic
- magic; sorcery
- magician; sorcerer
- generates or imbues with magic
- magic spell
- to explode; to erupt
- inferno; fiery explosion; eruption
- to set on fire; to burn; to cook; to make or become orange
- fiery; aflame; orange or yellow
- fire; orange or yellow color
- fireplace; oven; stove; furnace
- candle; small flame
- to slap; to clap
- hand; quartet
- to bend or rotate the wrist
- to betray; to commit treason; to mistrust; to be unfaithful; to be unreliable; to be inaccurate
- untrustworthy; unreliable
- betrayal; treachery; treason; distrust; suspicion; inaccuracy
- traitor; betrayer
- treacherous; treasonous; unfaithful; untrustworthy; unreliable; inaccurate
- frog; toad
- to make or become crescent; to collapse; to drain to less than half full; to move leftward
- crescent; concave; less than half full; left-handed
- crescent moon; concavity; left-hand side
- to freeze; to encase or coat in ice; to make or become a pale blue-cyan color
- frozen; encased in ice; icy; pale blue-cyan
- ice; pale color between blue and cyan
- to own; to posess; to have; to keep; to hold
- owned; possessed; kept; held
- wealthy; rich
- ownership; possession; property; wealth; asset
- skin; flesh; sense of touch
- to name; to identify; to call (a name)
- named; identified; called (a name)
- name; identity
- namer; identifyer
- naming; identifying
- to do
- action; verb
- cow; deer; buffalo
- to swim
- to reflect; to repeat; to duplicate; to copy
- to resurrect; to resuscitate; to wake; to regain consciousness
- reflected; repeated; again
- to reunite; to reconvene; to meet again
- reflection; repetition; twin; duplicate; copy
- mirror; reflector; repeater; duplicator; copier
- reflecting; repeating
- to care for; to empathize with; to love
- cared for; loved
- compassion; empathy; affection; brotherly love
- to befriend
- caring; compassionate; empathetic; loving
- but not, except
- bat; any winged mammal
- adult man; big brother
- masculine; manly; brotherly
- man; brother
- boy; son; little brother
- to twinkle; to sparkle
- starry; diamond-studded; bejeweled
- star; diamond; jewel; gemstone
- gemstone mine
- astronomer; jeweler
- to inspire awe and terror
- simultaneously awed and terrified
- simultaneous awe and terror
- to respect; to honor
- respect; honor
- temporal preposition (e.g., during, before, after, etc.
- to build with or carve from stone or brick
- stony; rocky; made of stone or brick
- quarry; mine
- rock; stone; brick
- mason; stoneworker
- country; land; realm
- to hear; to listen
- ear; sense of hearing
- noisy; loud; audible
- sound; noise
- wolf; dog
- dragon; wyvern; any winged reptile
- to create and sustain as a deity; to parent
- divine; godly
- deity; god
- to work with or craft from wood
- woodworker; carpenter
- to terrify
- to scare; to frighten
- scared; afraid; fearful; frightened
- to scream in fear
- frightened scream
- to creep out
- nervous; uneasy; creeped out
- nervousness; unease; creepiness
- scary; frightening
- fear; fright
- adult; big sibling
- person; sibling; child
- to play
- childish; playful
- young child; baby; little sibling
- to horrify
- horror; abhorrence
- horrifying; horrific; abhorrent
- to disturb; to disgust
- disturbed; disgusted
- disturbance; disgust
- to disconcert
- disturbing; disgusting
- to move; to act
- mobile; active
- motion; movement; activity
- to practice or display physical skill or dexterity
- dexterous; physically skilled
- dexterity; physical skill
- however; but
- pair; duo; couple
- upper arm; shoulder
- to bend or rotate the shoulder joint
- shoulder joint
- to come before; to preceed; to move backward in time
- previous; old; historic; backward in time
- last month
- yesterday; last night
- last year
- past; previous thing; predecessor
- yesterday morning
- to dry; to evaporate; to thirst; to dehydrate
- dry; dehydrated; thirsty
- dryness; desert; thirst; dehydration; evaporation
- drying; dehydrating
- moth; butterfly
- chest; upper back; torso
- to bend or twist at the waist
- waist, particularly the joints of the spine immediately below the ribcage
- size; volume
- to weaken; to give way
- weak; fragile; delicate
- weakness; fragility
- to operate a machine or device; to engineer; to mechanize; to motorize
- mechanical; technological; motorized; engineered
- engine; device; motor; machine; technology; mechanism
- engineer; mechanic; technician
- exclusive or; either-or
- huh?; pardon?; what?
- to express emotion; to incite emotion
- emotional; sensitive
- emotion; feeling
- to be; to exist
- existing; extant
- existence; state of being; something; presence
- to empty; to vanish; to disappear; to be absent; to obliviate; to destroy; to annihilate
- empty; absent
- new moon; nothingness; emptiness; absence; oblivion; annihilation; destruction
- to gather as a crowd
- large group; crowd
- to accompany; to accessorize; to go with; to collect; to gather
- accompanied; accessorized; collected; gathered
- companionship; company; accompaniment; accessory; small group; collection; gathering
- accompanying; accessorizing
- to energize; to motivate; to encourage
- energized; motivated; enterprising
- energy; motivation; gumption; initiative; encouragement
- energizing; motivating; encouraging
- to deny; to refute; to contradict; to negate
- no (answer to a question); denial; refutation; contradiction; negation
- pig; hog; boar
- to curse; to hex; to bestow bad luck or misfortune
- cursed; hexed; unfortunate
- curse; hex; bad luck; misfortune; malediction
- to wear; to clothe; to dress
- clothed; dressed
- cloak; clothing
- wardrobe; closet; dresser
- tailor; seamstress
- to make or be silent
- to make or be quiet
- to whisper
- wield a bow and arrow
- bow (and arrow)
- to blink
- eyelid; month
- locational preposition (e.g., in, to, from, etc.)
- to tap one’s foot; to walk
- foundation; cornerstone
- to bend, twist, or rotate the ankle
- to lie; to deceive; to fake
- fake; false
- lie; falsehood; deception; fakery; dishonesty
- liar; faker; deceiver; dishonest person
- deceptive; deceitful; dishonest
- to drain, to sap, to empty
- drained, lethargic, inert, empty
- drainage, lethargy, inertia, emptiness
- wetten; moisten; liquify
- wet; moist
- water current
- sea; ocean
- pond; lake
- water; liquid; moisture
- to sail; to drive, ride, or travel by boat or submarine
- boat; ship; submarine
- drop of water
- to yell; to shout; to speak loudly or brashly
- shout; big voice; brash voice
- to speak; to tell; to say; to communicate
- to lick; to taste
- tongue; sense of taste
- flavor; taste
- mouth; jaw; chin; cheek; speech; voice; language
- to open or close the mouth; to rotate the jaw joint
- jaw joint
- to speak gently or timidly
- small voice; timid voice
- talkative; wordy
- spoken word
- length (spatial)
- overwhelmingly bright; pure white
- overwhelming brightness; pure white color
- bright; light; white
- snake; wyrm
- light; brightness; white color
- illuminating; brightening; lightening; whitening
- lamp; torch; light; illuminator
- to brighten; to illuminate; to lighten; to whiten
- ray or beam of light
- to make or be still, to hold in place, to stop
- still, motionless
- to meet; to socialize; to fellowship; to converge
- to assume a posture, position, or stance
- posed; poised
- pose; poise; posture; stance
- meeting; socialization; fellowship; society; convergence
- to scream or shout in surprise
- cry or shout of surprise
- to panic
- panicked; hysterical
- panic; hysteria
- to shock; to surprise; to astonish; to frighten; to startle
- shocked; surprised; astonished; frightened; startled
- shock; surprise; astonishment; fear
- shocker; frightener; one who surprises or astonishes
- to astonish; to surprise
- astonished; surprised
- astonishment; surprise
- astonishing; surprising
- shocking; surprising; astonishing; frightening; startling
- to know; to teach; to learn
- mouse; rat
- to move forward; to move toward the front
- to make or become sick or ill; to make or become a green-yellow color
- sick; ill; diseased; pale yellow-green
- sickness; disease; illness; pale color between green and yellow
- to practice or display cognitive skill or intelligence; to think through; to outsmart
- intelligent; smart; clever; cognitively skilled
- intellect; intelligence; cognitive skill
- to point; to poke; to scratch; to maul
- digit; finger; toe; fingernail; toenail; claw; talon; ability to point; ability to scratch; ability to maul
- to bend the knuckle
- of this world
- world; planet
- to last or continue forever; to live forever
- eternal; unending; immeasurable; immortal; permanent
- eternity; forever; immortality; permanence
- to live; to age; to wait; to continue; to measure
- old; aged; patient; continuous; long (time)
- worm; caterpillar; slug; snail; maggot
- house (building)
- time; age; measurement; continuation; duration
- clock; guage; scale; ruler
- to last or continue a short time
- momentary; brief; temporary; short (time)
- moment; short duration
- to do good deeds; to be righteous
- to say hello; to welcome
- hello; welcome (as a greeting)
- welcoming; inviting
- goodness; righteousness
- to say goodbye or farewell
- goodbye; farewell
- one who does good deeds; a righteous person
- good; righteous
- good deed or event
- to transform; to change; to mutate; to transition; to alter
- transformed; changed; mutant; transitioned; altered
- transformation; change; mutation; transition; alteration
- transforming; changing; mutating; transitioning; altering
- to destroy light
- anti-light; dark matter
- that’s that; the end; so there
- to hunt; to pursue; to stalk; to prey upon; to search; to seek
- hunted; pursued; stalked; preyed upon; chased; sought after
- hunt; pursuit; predation; search
- prey; game; quarry
- hunter; pursuer; stalker; predator; seeker
- hunting; pursuing; stalking; predatory; searching
- to cast a shadow
- shadowed; shadowy
- one who casts a shadow
- to eclipse; to occlude; to cover; to hide; to mask; to veil
- eclipsed; occluded; covered; hidden; veiled; masked
- eclipse; occlusion; covering; mask; veil; curtain
- eclipsing; occluding; covering; hiding; veiling; masking
- to frost over; to make or become a pale green-cyan color
- frosty; frosted; pale green-cyan
- frost; pale color between green and cyan
- to investigate
- investigator; detective
- solution to a mystery
- to ask; to inquire; to question
- question; inquiry
- one who asks a question; questionnaire; survey; quiz; test
- to ask a rhetorical question; to pose a riddle; to ask a silly question
- rhetorical (question); silly or unnecessary (question)
- rhetorical question; riddle; silly question
- one who asks a rhetorical question; riddler; one who asks silly questions
- answer to a rhetorical question; solution to a riddle
- curious; inquisitive
- answer to a question
- to trade; to exchange; to purchase; to buy
- market; shop; store
- trade; exchange; purchase
- wallet; purse
- buyer; customer
- to be a Nacdrel
- race name, “Night-Child”
- dead of night; darkest part of the night
- to speak Nactlylvh
- language name, “Night-Speech”
- nighttime; calendar day
- dusky; purple
- dusk; purple color
- to fall; to descend; to move downward
- bottom; lower; shorter; downward
- bottom; minimum; nadir
- to come after; to proceed; to move forward in time
- futuristic; next; new; forward in time
- next month
- tomorrow; tomorrow night
- next year
- future; next thing; successor
- tomorrow morning
- the unknowable; impossibility of knowledge
- to not know; to be ignorant
- ignorant; knowledge-less
- the unknown; lack of knowledge; ignorance
- one who doesn’t know; an ignorant person
- he; him; himself; his; she; her; herself; hers; it; itself; its
- to nod; to shake one’s head
- head; skull; year
- to turn or tilt the head
- joint that connects the neck to the head
- stolen; taken; seized
- to steal; to take; to seize
- theft; robbery; seizure
- theif; robber; bandit
- to love; to woo; to seduce
- romantic; loved; precious
- boyfriend; male lover
- to eat; to ingest; to digest; to consume
- dining room; restaurant
- food; fuel
- romance; love; darling; term of endearment
- seductive; loving
- girlfriend; female lover
- to rejoice
- causes joy
- to be happy; to smile; to grin
- to be content
- causes contentment
- causes happiness
- because; as a result of
- to count; to number; to quantify; to measure; to weigh; to calculate; to compute
- calculator; computer
- number; amount; quantity
- counter (one who counts); mathematician
- to be in a place; to locate
- place; location
- ant; spider; bug; insect
- god of evil
- to do or be evil
- to be greedy, miserly, or possessive
- greedy; miserly; possessive
- evil; badness; unrighteousness
- evildoer; an unrighteous or bad person
- to annoy; to bother; to make mischief
- annoyed; bothered
- annoyance; mischief
- one who annoys; mischief-maker
- annoying; bothersome; mischievous; naughty
- evil; bad; unrighteous
- evil act or event; sin
- to bury; to plant; to sow
- earthen; dirty
- earth; ground; dirt
- hawk; eagle; falcon; owl; bird of prey
- by the way; oh hey, so; anyway
- to beautify
- to collect; to gather; to harvest; to reap
- to infuriate; enrage
- furious; enraged
- fury; rage
- infuriating; enraging
- to anger
- to scream or shout in anger
- angry scream or yell
- to disgruntle; to annoy
- disgruntled; annoyed
- disgruntlement; annoyance
- gathering; harvest; collection
- I know, right?; yeah!; u-huh; OK
- to affirm; to confirm; to validate
- yes; affirmation; confirmation; validation
- to sing; to whistle; to hum; to make music
- song; music
- singer; musician
- to torment; to torture
- torment; agony; torture
- to hurt
- to cry out in pain;
- cry of pain; pained scream
- to irritate; to itch
- irritation; itch
- duck; goose; swan; puffin; gull; waterfowl
- to contain; to wrap; to surround; to encircle
- contained; wrapped; surrounded; encircled
- container; wrapper; surrounding; environment; context
- containing; wrapping; surrounding; encircling
- to repulse; to push; to cast; to banish; to send; to repel; to expel; to exile; to go; to leave; to depart
- repulsed; pushed; cast out; banished; sent; repelled; expelled; exiled; gone; left
- repulsion; banishment; expulsion; exile; departure
- repulsive; pushing; casting; banishing; sending; repelling; expelling; exiling
- to bleed; to redden
- bloody; red or magenta
- blood; bodily fluid; red or magenta color
- to wield a scythe, halberd, or glaive
- scythe; halberd; glaive
- to wield a sickle
- forested; wooded
- forest; woodland; woods
- to sprout; to grow; to make or become green
- overgrown; green
- seed (of a plant)
- twig; stick
- plant; vegetation; green color
- split or fork in a branch
- grassy; mossy
- field; meadow; lawn
- grass; moss
- stem; trunk; log
- successive and; and then
- trio; trinity; trifecta; triumvirate
- you; yourself; your; yours
- to carry; to hold; to bear; to support; to follow; to serve
- carried; held; born; supported; served; followed
- to handle; to grip; to hold by a handle
- handle; hilt; grip
- carrier; holder; bearer; support; supporter; follower; disciple; vassal; servant; slave
- carrying; holding; bearing; supporting; serving; following
- to move inward; to retract; to go inside
- waist; hips; belly; stomach; lower back; groin; core; center
- thigh; upper leg; buttocks
- to raise, lower, or twist the thigh; to rotate the thigh joint
- thigh joint; hip
- whale; porpoise
- straddle a boundary; make or become gray
- twilight; border; gray color
- to attract; to pull; to suck; to draw; to summon; to bring; to lure; to come; to approach
- attracted, pulled, sucked; drawn; summoned; brought; lured
- attraction; suction; summons; lure
- attractive; pulling; sucking; drawing; summoning; bringing; luring; alluring
- hairy; furry; feathered
- to trust; to be faithful; to rely on; to be accurate
- trustworthy; reliable
- loyalty; faithfulness; fidelity; trust; reliability; accuracy
- to confide in someone
- loyal; faithful; trustworthy; reliable; accurate
- hair; fur; feather
- to climb a mountain
- mountain range
- to rot; to decay; to waste; to dispose of; to throw out
- rotten; decayed; wasted
- rot; decay; garbage; waste; trash
- trash bin; garbage can
- to fence in; to limit; to stop; to contain; to curb; to remain within
- bounded; fenced in; limited; stopped; contained
- boundary; fence; railing; wall; limit
- bounding; limiting; containing
- to part; to diverge; to scatter
- parting; divergence; scattering
- to rule; to reign; to govern
- monarchy; royalty; government
- monarch; ruler
- crown; scepter
- to inherit a throne
- prince; princess
- to snow
- glow like snow under light (especially moonlight)
- light (especially moonlight) reflected off snow
- to glow like snow under light (especially moonlight)
- to poison
- poison; venom; toxin
- poisonous; venomous; toxic
- and you?; well?; so?
- to see; to look
- observant; watchful
- eye; vision; sense of sight
- view; appearance; aesthetic; vision; sight
- to shrink in size or volume
- small; little
- smallness; littleness
- tiny; miniscule; microscopic
- go on; u-huh; mm-hm
- to aid; to help; to assist; to benefit; to serve
- aid; assistance; benefit; service
- aide; helper; assistant; benefactor; servant
- helpful; beneficial; assistive
- forearm; lower arm
- to bend or straighten the elbow
- to shorten (spatial length); to shrink in spatial length
- short (spatial length)
- shortness (spatial length)
- extremely short (spatial length)
- extreme shortness (spatial length)
- to recline; to lie
- reclined; lying
- reclined or lying posture
- to make or become brown, dark orange, or dark yellow
- stained with dark or old blood; brown; dark orange or yellow
- dark or old blood; brown color; dark orange or yellow color
- to darken completely, to completely blacken
- completely dark; pitch black
- absolute darkness
- to darken; to blacken
- dark; black
- darkness; blackness
- to dim
- to deter, to cause woe, to harm, to hinder
- to bend a joint; to rotate around a point; to orbit
- jointed; hinged
- joint; hinge; axis; center of rotation
- detriment, woe, harm, hindrance
- detrimental, harmful, hindering
- thick smoke, mist, fog, or vapor
- to billow and writhe like vapor
- smoky; cloudy; foggy; misty; steamy; vaporous
- smoke; steam; fog; mist; vapor
- thin smoke, mist, fog, or vapor
- plume of smoke or steam; cloud
- wisp of smoke, steam, fog, or mist; small cloud
- to work with or craft from metal
- metal; metallic; iron; steel
- forge; blacksmith
- metal; iron; steel
- metalworker; blacksmith
- to remove or break a bone
- coffin; sarcophagus; bed
- home; place of welcome, belonging, or comfort
- to grieve; to mourn
- grief-stricken; mournful
- grief; mourning
- to sadden
- sad; sorrowful
- to thin; to narrow; to shrink in width
- thin; skinny; narrow
- thinness; skinnyness; narrowness
- extremely thin, skinny, or narrow
- extreme thinness, skinnyness, or narrowness
- to move outward; to go outside
- outer; outside; beyond
- outside; that which lies beyond
- extraterrestrial; alien (from outer space)
- outer space; the void
- to drive, ride, or travel by spaceship
- spaceship pilot
- to cry; to rain
- crying; rainy
- tears; rain
- to cry out in sadness; to wail; to sob; to lament
- cry of sadness; wail; sob; lamentation
- therefore; as a result; and so
- sadness; sorrow
- to disappoint
- to multiply (mathematics)
- multiplication (mathematics)
- to increase; to grow; to improve; to upgrade; to add
- increase; growth; improvement; upgrade; addition
- autumn; fall (season)
- to divide (mathematics)
- division (mathematics)
- to decrease; to reduce; to downgrade; to degrade; to subtract
- decrease; reduction; entropy; downgrade; degredation; subtraction
- spring (season)
- to write; to arrange or compose words
- to read
- reading; ability to read
- tome; large book
- book; literature; publication; any written material
- booklet; pamphlet; brochure
- writing; written word; arrangement of words; literary composition
- writer; author
- pen; pencil; stylus; any writing tool
- to shrink in height or depth
- short (height); shallow
- shortness (height); shallowness
- extremely short (height) or shallow
- extreme shortness (height) or shallowness
- to depart, to go
- width; thickness; breadth
- to guide; to follow a path; to employ a method
- way; path; road; trail; method; conduit
- guidepost; sign
- to drink
- cup; goblet
- cat; feline
- to blossom; to bloom; to flower
- flowery; covered in flowers
- to sniff; to smell
- nose; beak; snout; sense of smell
- smelly; odorous; pungent; fragrant
- scent; odor; fragrance; smell
- to make or become freezing
- freezing, frigid, frozen
- freezing cold
- to make or be cold
- to make or become cool
- cool, chilly
- coolness, chilliness
- to protect; to guard; to defend
- protected; guarded; defended
- defense; fortress; castle
- guard; sentinel; defender; protector
- protective; defensive; guarding
- turtle; tortoise
- to bite; to chew; to gnaw
- tooth; fang; ability to chew; ability to bite
- to influence; to exercise power; to affect; to have an effect
- influenced; affected
- influence; power; ability
- influential; powerful; effective
- to champion or defend a cause; to wield a blade or weapon; to present an argument; to make a point (in a debate)
- champion; hero; knight; master of combat; noble blade; weapon; argument (point made in a debate)
- heroic; knightly; bladed; armed; weaponized
- neck; throat
- to bend the neck joint
- spinal joint at the base of the neck that connects the neck to the shoulders; neck joint
- to ride a horse; to ride any animal
- horse; pony; donkey; steed
- rabbit; hare
- to hope; to encourage
- hopeful; hopefully; encouraged
- hope; encouragement
- hope-bringer; encourager
- to burn or make extremely hot
- extremely hot, burning
- burning heat
- to heat
- to warm
- relational preposition (e.g. of, for, against, etc.)
- to drive, ride, or travel by vehicle
- cart; carriage; car; truck; automobile; vehicle
- bear (animal)
- chicken; turkey; pheasant
- to strengthen; to reinforce; to empower; to force
- strong; firm; forceful; powerful
- strength; firmness; force; power
- strengthening; empowering
- to move backward; to move toward the back
- back; rear
- to arrive, to come, to approach
- arrival, approach
- to make or become gibbous; to swell; to fill to more than half full; to move rightward
- gibbous; convex; more than half full; right-handed
- gibbous moon; convexity; right-hand side
- disembowel; dissect
- entrails; organs; guts
- body; form; shape; figure
- uh; um; hmm; er; erm
- of medium size or volume
- medium size; medium volume
- unitive and
- to connect; to come together; to bind together; to fuse; to marry; to wed
- connected; together; bound together; fused; married; wedded
- connection; togetherness; fusion; marriage; wedding
- middle of the day; brightest, hottest part of the day
- to make or become daytime; to make or become blue
- diurnal; blue
- daytime; blue color
- of medium length (spatial)
- medium length (spatial)
- to sit
- seated posture
- to hunger; to be out of fuel
- hungry; empty; lacking
- hunger; emptiness; shortage; lack
- inclusive or; and-or
- to be full; to be content; to be satisfied
- full; satisfied; content; plentiful; bountiful
- fullness; satisfaction; plenty; bounty; contentment
- of medium width, thickness, or breadth
- medium width; medium thickness; medium breadth
- to legislate; to regulate; to organize; to moderate; to balance
- ordered; lawful; regulated; organized; moderate; balanced
- order; law; regulation; organization; moderation; balance
- to disintegrate; to reduce to dust or ash
- dusty; ashen; sandy; grainy
- dust; ash; sand; speck; particle; grain (not food)
- of medium height or depth
- medium height; medium depth
- to inherit
- heir; inheritor
- to master; to command; to outrank
- mastered; commanded; outranked
- mastery; command; rank
- master; commander
- masterful; commanding; high-ranking
- this month
- tonight; today
- this year
- present (time); now; current thing; modernity
- the; that; that one
- to be there
- being there
- lizard; crocodile; alligator; newt; salamander
- to animal-ize; to dehumanize; to act or make like an animal; to be wild
- animalistic; beastial; wild; feral; not a person; inhuman
- animal; beast; non-person
- animal-izing; dehumanizing; wild-making; feral-izing
- to kick; to run
- shin; lower leg; calf
- to bend or straighten the knee; to kneel
- I; me; myself; my; mine
- to practice an art or craft; to plan; to strategize
- artful; creative; planned; strategic
- art; craft; plan; strategy
- artist; craftsman; planner; strategist
- to perform a technique; to execute a tactic
- technical; tactical
- technique; tactic
- tactician; technician
- also; too
- adult woman; big sister
- feminine; womanly; sisterly
- woman; sister
- girl; daughter; little sister
- to objectify
- thing; object; noun; “whatchimacallit”
- the; this; this one
- to be here
- being here
- to cut; to slice; to separate; to sever; to amputate; to divorce
- cut; sliced; separated; severed; amputated; divorced
- cut; slice; separation; severance; amputation; divorce
- common blade; cutter; slicer; separator
- ball (dance); war
- soldier; warrior
- to dance; to fight; to interact
- dance; fight; interaction
- dancer; fighter
- to tell the truth
- honest; real
- truth; reality; honesty
- honest person
- to make or become cyan
- ghostly; spiritual; cyan
- to commit evil necromancy
- evil necromancy
- evil necromancer
- ghost; spirit; soul; cyan color
- to leave alone; to abandon
- alone; lonely; solitary; abandoned
- loneliness; solitude; abandonment
- to strike with lightning; to electrify, to charge with electricity, to electrocute
- electrified, charged with electricity, electric
- lightning; electricity, electrical charge
- to fly
- bird; songbird
- to wield a greatsword
- to wield a sword
- sheath; scabbard
- to wield a dagger
- dagger; knife
- knife fighter
- to storm
- to inflate
- airy; inflated
- to blow
- wind; air current
- to drive, ride, or travel by airborne vehicle
- any flying vehicle; airship; airplane; blimp; helicopter
- fly; gnat; mosquito; bee
- height; depth
- to give; to donate
- given; donated
- gift; present; donation
- generous person; giver; donor; philanthropist
- generous; giving; donating; philanthropic
- to die; to kill; to end
- dead; deathly
- to rise; to ascend; to move upward
- upper; higher; taller; upward
- top; maximum; apex; zenith
- grave; graveyard; cemetery; crypt; bedroom; inn
- death; end
- goddess of death
- to dream; to hallucinate
- illusion; dream; mirage; hallucination
- killer; executioner
- to sleep; to be unconscious
- asleep; unconscious
- sleep; unconsciousness
- deadly; lethal; fatal; conclusive
- to change seasons
- season (time)